INTRODUCTIONMany biological systems are losing diversity in association with human‐based environmental change (Hoekstra, Boucher, Ricketts, & Roberts, ; Parr, Lehmann, Bond, Hoffmann, & Andersen, ; Pe'er et al., ). The main drivers are generally well described, often involving the transformation of local processes relating to species interactions within and across trophic levels (Borer et al., ; Parker, Burkepile, & Hay, ), changes in environmental heterogeneity (Melbourne et al., ; Stevens, Dise, Mountford, & Gowing, ) and regional processes relating to spatial limitations with habitat loss and patch isolation (Alstad et al., ; Holt & Gaines, ). While the identity of these drivers can be clear, their mechanistic influences on alpha and beta diversity are less well understood and difficult to test (Catano, Dickson, & Myers, ). On modern landscapes, human‐induced changes to local and regional processes tend to occur simultaneously with the potential for combined and indirect impacts of perturbations (e.g., dispersal limitation shaping competitive outcomes; Crain, Kroeker, & Halpern, ). The end result for diversity can be variable, reducing species richness (alpha), shifting species composition by homogenizing diversity (reduced beta) or increasing species heterogeneity (increased beta) depending on how local and regional changes synergistically combine (Catano et al., ; Laurance & Cochrane, ).These
Diversity and Distributions – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
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