Gases such as ethylene, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have been recognized as vital signaling molecules in plants and animals. Of these gasotransmitters, NO and H2S have recently gained momentum mainly because of their involvement in numerous cellular processes. It is therefore important to study their various attributes including their biosynthetic and signaling pathways. The present review provides an insight into various routes for the biosynthesis of NO and H2S as well as their signaling role in plant cells under different conditions, more particularly under heavy metal stress. Their beneficial roles in the plant's protection against abiotic and biotic stresses as well as their adverse effects have been addressed. This review describes how H2S and NO, being very small‐sized molecules, can quickly pass through the cell membranes and trigger a multitude of responses to various factors, notably to various stress conditions such as drought, heat, osmotic, heavy metal and multiple biotic stresses. The versatile interactions between H2S and NO involved in the different molecular pathways have been discussed. In addition to the signaling role of H2S and NO, their direct role in posttranslational modifications is also considered. The information provided here will be helpful to better understand the multifaceted roles of H2S and NO in plants, particularly under stress conditions.
Physiologia Plantarum – Wiley
Published: Feb 1, 2020
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