New indices of arterial stiffness measured with an
upper-arm oscillometric device in active versus inactive
, Soichiro Iwanuma
, Nobuyuki Ohashi
& Takeo Hashiguchi
1 Center for Fundamental Education, Teikyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan
2 Department of School Education, Teikyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan
Arterial pressure-volume index, arterial
velocity pulse index, cross-sectional study,
regular aerobic exercise.
Ryota Kobayashi, 2-2-1, Senju, Sakuragi,
Adachi-ku, Tokyo 120-0045, Japan.
No funding information provided.
Received: 15 November 2017; Revised: 12
December 2017; Accepted: 13 December
Physiol Rep, 6 (5), 2018, e13574,
Arterial velocity pulse index (AVI) and arterial pressure-volume index (API),
new indicators of arterial stiffness, are risk factors for the development of car-
diovascular disease. Regular aerobic exercise decreases arterial stiffness. In fact,
pulse wave velocity (PWV), index of arterial stiffness, is lower in endurance-
trained than in untrained young adults. However, the effect of regular aerobic
exercise on AVI and API remains unknown. This study investigates the effect
of regular aerobic exercise on AVI and API, new indicators of arterial stiffness.
We gathered data from 18 recreationally active females (active group, age:
18 Æ 1 years, 2 Æ 2 h/week, 3 Æ 2 times/week, ≥2 years of aerobic endurance
training) and 18 recreationally inactive females (inactive group, age:
18 Æ 1 years, ≥2 years without such training) in a cross-sectional study.
Height, body weight, body mass index, AVI, API, brachial blood pressure,
heart rate, and 20-m multistage shuttle run test were measured in a quiet
room at a temperature between 24°C and 25°C. AVI and API were lower in
the active group than in the inactive group (P < 0.01). Number of 20-m shut-
tles was negatively correlated with AVI (P < 0.01, r = À0.8) and API
(P < 0.01, r = À0.8). These results suggest that regular aerobic exercise train-
ing decreases AVI and API in young females.
Increased arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor
for the development of cardiovascular disease (Blacher
et al. 1999). Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and cardio-ankle
vascular index (CAVI) are now used to assess arterial
stiffness (Tomiyama and Yamashina 2010). Although
these techniques are clinically and experimentally
accepted, they have some disadvantages: (1) a long mea-
surement time, (2) a physical load (with pressure from a
blood pressure [BP] cuff on both arms and ankles or
from squeezing a tonometry sensor into the carotid
artery), and (3) requirement of knowledge and skill in
applying tonometry transducers (Okamoto et al. 2016).
Therefore, another method might be of value/use to check
arterial stiffness periodically.
Recently, arterial velocity pulse index (AVI) and arterial
pressure-volume index (API), two novel methods for evalu-
ating systemic and peripheral arterial stiffness, respectively,
have been gaining attention. Because AVI and API can be
calculated by simply applying an oscillometric cuff to the
upper left arm for 2 min, they can be measured more easily
than PWV and CAVI. Moreover, AVI and API are corre-
lated with PWV and CAVI (Komine et al. 2012; Okamoto
et al. 2016; Ueda et al. 2016; Komatsu et al. 2017; Zhang
et al. 2017). For instance, Zhang et al. (2017) showed that
AVI and API correlated with systemic (brachial-ankle)
PWV in a study of 183 individuals. Moreover, increases in
ª 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of
The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.
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2018 | Vol. 6 | Iss. 5 | e13574
Physiological Reports ISSN 2051-817X