Neonatal Skin Maturation—Vernix Caseosa and Free Amino Acids

Neonatal Skin Maturation—Vernix Caseosa and Free Amino Acids Abstract: Neonatal skin hydration decreases rapidly postnatally and then increases, indicating adaptive changes in stratum corneum water handling properties. Transition from high to low humidity at birth may initiate filaggrin proteolysis to free amino acids. Neonatal skin with vernix caseosa retained is more hydrated than skin with vernix removed. This study examines the potential roles of free amino acids and vernix in postnatal adaptation of infant stratum corneum in vivo. Specifically, the ontogeny of free amino acid generation in neonatal stratum corneum and the role of vernix caseosa in postnatal adaptation were examined using high performance liquid chromatography. Free amino acids were quantified for infant skin samples collected at (i) birth and 1 month and (ii) birth and 24 hours after vernix caseosa retention or removal and compared to neonatal foreskin, vernix caseosa, and adult stratum corneum using t‐tests, analysis of variance, or univariate procedures. Free amino acids were extremely low at birth, significantly higher 1 month later but lower than in adults. Vernix caseosa retention led to significantly higher free amino acids 24 hours after birth compared to infants with vernix caseosa removed, and it paralleled the higher stratum corneum hydration of vernix caseosa‐retained skin. Vernix caseosa contained free amino acids, with glutamic acid and histidine levels higher than in infants. Free amino acids in vernix caseosa‐retained skin appear to originate from vernix caseosa. Free amino acids were lower in neonatal foreskin than adult forearm stratum corneum. Arginine was higher than citrulline at birth, but levels were comparable in older infants. The free amino acid increase at 1 month may be initiated by the humidity transition at birth and supports results in animals. The findings have implications for infant skin care practices. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Pediatric Dermatology Wiley

Neonatal Skin Maturation—Vernix Caseosa and Free Amino Acids

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
© 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
ISSN
0736-8046
eISSN
1525-1470
D.O.I.
10.1111/j.1525-1470.2011.01309.x
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract: Neonatal skin hydration decreases rapidly postnatally and then increases, indicating adaptive changes in stratum corneum water handling properties. Transition from high to low humidity at birth may initiate filaggrin proteolysis to free amino acids. Neonatal skin with vernix caseosa retained is more hydrated than skin with vernix removed. This study examines the potential roles of free amino acids and vernix in postnatal adaptation of infant stratum corneum in vivo. Specifically, the ontogeny of free amino acid generation in neonatal stratum corneum and the role of vernix caseosa in postnatal adaptation were examined using high performance liquid chromatography. Free amino acids were quantified for infant skin samples collected at (i) birth and 1 month and (ii) birth and 24 hours after vernix caseosa retention or removal and compared to neonatal foreskin, vernix caseosa, and adult stratum corneum using t‐tests, analysis of variance, or univariate procedures. Free amino acids were extremely low at birth, significantly higher 1 month later but lower than in adults. Vernix caseosa retention led to significantly higher free amino acids 24 hours after birth compared to infants with vernix caseosa removed, and it paralleled the higher stratum corneum hydration of vernix caseosa‐retained skin. Vernix caseosa contained free amino acids, with glutamic acid and histidine levels higher than in infants. Free amino acids in vernix caseosa‐retained skin appear to originate from vernix caseosa. Free amino acids were lower in neonatal foreskin than adult forearm stratum corneum. Arginine was higher than citrulline at birth, but levels were comparable in older infants. The free amino acid increase at 1 month may be initiated by the humidity transition at birth and supports results in animals. The findings have implications for infant skin care practices.

Journal

Pediatric DermatologyWiley

Published: Mar 1, 2011

References

  • Changes in diapered and nondiapered infant skin over the first month of life
    Visscher, Visscher; Chatterjee, Chatterjee; Munson, Munson
  • Biomedical assessment and instrumental evaluation of healthy infant skin
    Visscher, Visscher; Chatterjee, Chatterjee; Ebel, Ebel
  • Stratum corneum hydration and amino acid content in xerotic skin
    Horii, Horii; Nakayama, Nakayama; Obata, Obata
  • Moisturization and skin barrier function
    Rawlings, Rawlings; Harding, Harding
  • Surface free energy characterization of vernix caseosa. Potential role in waterproofing the newborn infant
    Youssef, Youssef; Wickett, Wickett; Hoath, Hoath
  • Early adaptation of human skin following birth: a biophysical assessment
    Visscher, Visscher; Munson, Munson; Bare, Bare
  • Stratum corneum free amino acids following barrier perturbation and repair
    Visscher, Visscher; Robinson, Robinson; Wickett, Wickett
  • Nitric oxide synthases: properties and catalytic mechanism
    Griffith, Griffith; Stuehr, Stuehr
  • The degradation of L‐histidine and trans‐ and cis‐urocanic acid by bacteria from skin and the role of bacterial cis‐urocanic acid isomerase
    Hug, Hug; Dunkerson, Dunkerson; Hunter, Hunter
  • Regional variation in the free amino acids in the stratum corneum
    Visscher, Visscher; Robinson, Robinson; Wickett, Wickett
  • The biology of vernix caseosa
    Hoath, Hoath; Pickens, Pickens; Visscher, Visscher
  • Host defense proteins in vernix caseosa and amniotic fluid
    Akinbi, Akinbi; Narendran, Narendran; Pass, Pass
  • Vernix caseosa as a multi‐component defence system based on polypeptides, lipids and their interactions
    Tollin, Tollin; Bergsson, Bergsson; Kai‐Larsen, Kai‐Larsen
  • Development of a murine model to evaluate the effect of vernix caseosa on skin barrier recovery
    Oudshoorn, Oudshoorn; Rissmann, Rissmann; Van der Coelen, Van der Coelen

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