N‐Terminal Cu‐Binding Motifs (Xxx‐Zzz‐His, Xxx‐His) and Their Derivatives: Chemistry, Biology and Medicinal Applications

N‐Terminal Cu‐Binding Motifs (Xxx‐Zzz‐His, Xxx‐His) and Their Derivatives: Chemistry,... Peptides and proteins with N‐terminal amino acid sequences NH2‐Xxx‐His (XH) and NH2‐Xxx‐Zzz‐His (XZH) form well‐established high‐affinity CuII‐complexes. Key examples are Asp‐Ala‐His (in serum albumin) and Gly‐His‐Lys, the wound healing factor. This opens a straightforward way to add a high‐affinity CuII‐binding site to almost any peptide or protein, by chemical or recombinant approaches. Thus, these motifs, NH2‐Xxx‐Zzz‐His in particular, have been used to equip peptides and proteins with a multitude of functions based on the redox activity of Cu, including nuclease, protease, glycosidase, or oxygen activation properties, useful in anticancer or antimicrobial drugs. More recent research suggests novel biological functions, mainly based on the redox inertness of CuII in XZH, like PET imaging (with 64Cu), chelation therapies (for instance in Alzheimer's disease and other types of neurodegeneration), antioxidant units, Cu transporters and activation of biological functions by strong CuII binding. This Review gives an overview of the chemical properties of Cu‐XH and ‐XZH motifs and discusses the pros and cons of the vastly different biological applications, and how they could be improved depending on the application. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Chemistry - A European Journal Wiley

N‐Terminal Cu‐Binding Motifs (Xxx‐Zzz‐His, Xxx‐His) and Their Derivatives: Chemistry, Biology and Medicinal Applications