INTRODUCTIONMultiple myelomaMultiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the neoplastic proliferation of a single plasma cell clone overproducing monoclonal immunoglobulins with multiple lesion sites accounting for approximately ten per cent of haematological malignancies. It is a heterogeneous disease; while some patients show rapid progression despite therapy, others remain asymptomatic for years. Multiple myeloma develops on the basis of a monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance to smouldering myeloma and finally leading to symptomatic multiple myeloma characterized by the occurrence of organ damage according to the CRAB criteria (hyperCalcaemia, Renal failure, Anaemia and Bone lesions). The therapy indications have just recently been revised and are now determined by the classical CRAB criteria and additional biomarkers of progression, as the free light chain (FLC) load, more than one bone lesion ≥5 mm diameter in magnetic resonance imaging and ≥60% clonal plasma cells in bone marrow, thereby including a small proportion of smouldering myeloma patients. Other known parameters associated with prognosis of MM patients are age, beta‐2‐microglobulin (B2M), serum calcium, haemoglobin, and albumin levels, kidney function and C‐reactive protein (CRP). The International Staging System (ISS) is a simple measure of disease severity based on B2M and albumin levels. In general, higher levels of B2M and
European Journal of Clinical Investigation – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ;
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