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Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical applications

Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical... In eccentric exercise the contracting muscle is forcibly lengthened; in concentric exercise it shortens. While concentric contractions initiate movements, eccentric contractions slow or stop them. A unique feature of eccentric exercise is that untrained subjects become stiff and sore the day afterwards because of damage to muscle fibres. This review considers two possible initial events as responsible for the subsequent damage, damage to the excitation‐contraction coupling system and disruption at the level of the sarcomeres. Other changes seen after eccentric exercise, a fall in active tension, shift in optimum length for active tension, and rise in passive tension, are seen, on balance, to favour sarcomere disruption as the starting point for the damage. As well as damage to muscle fibres there is evidence of disturbance of muscle sense organs and of proprioception. A second period of exercise, a week after the first, produces much less damage. This is the result of an adaptation process. One proposed mechanism for the adaptation is an increase in sarcomere number in muscle fibres. This leads to a secondary shift in the muscle's optimum length for active tension. The ability of muscle to rapidly adapt following the damage from eccentric exercise raises the possibility of clinical applications of mild eccentric exercise, such as for protecting a muscle against more major injuries. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The Journal of Physiology Wiley

Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical applications

The Journal of Physiology , Volume 537 (2) – Dec 1, 2001

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 2001 Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
ISSN
0022-3751
eISSN
1469-7793
DOI
10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.00333.x
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

In eccentric exercise the contracting muscle is forcibly lengthened; in concentric exercise it shortens. While concentric contractions initiate movements, eccentric contractions slow or stop them. A unique feature of eccentric exercise is that untrained subjects become stiff and sore the day afterwards because of damage to muscle fibres. This review considers two possible initial events as responsible for the subsequent damage, damage to the excitation‐contraction coupling system and disruption at the level of the sarcomeres. Other changes seen after eccentric exercise, a fall in active tension, shift in optimum length for active tension, and rise in passive tension, are seen, on balance, to favour sarcomere disruption as the starting point for the damage. As well as damage to muscle fibres there is evidence of disturbance of muscle sense organs and of proprioception. A second period of exercise, a week after the first, produces much less damage. This is the result of an adaptation process. One proposed mechanism for the adaptation is an increase in sarcomere number in muscle fibres. This leads to a secondary shift in the muscle's optimum length for active tension. The ability of muscle to rapidly adapt following the damage from eccentric exercise raises the possibility of clinical applications of mild eccentric exercise, such as for protecting a muscle against more major injuries.

Journal

The Journal of PhysiologyWiley

Published: Dec 1, 2001

References