Smith‐Kingsmore syndrome (SKS) OMIM #616638, also known as MINDS syndrome (ORPHA 457485), is a rare autosomal dominant disorder reported so far in 23 patients. SKS is characterized by intellectual disability, macrocephaly/hemi/megalencephaly, and seizures. It is also associated with a pattern of facial dysmorphology and other non‐neurological features. Germline or mosaic mutations of the mTOR gene have been detected in all patients. The mTOR gene is a key regulator of cell growth, cell proliferation, protein synthesis and synaptic plasticity, and the mTOR pathway (PI3K‐AKT‐mTOR) is highly regulated and critical for cell survival and apoptosis. Mutations in different genes in this pathway result in known rare diseases implicated in hemi/megalencephaly with epilepsy, as the tuberous sclerosis complex caused by mutations in TSC1 and TSC2, or the PIK3CA‐related overgrowth spectrum (PROS). We here present 4 new cases of SKS, review all clinical and molecular aspects of this disorder, as well as some characteristics of the patients with only brain mTOR somatic mutations.
Clinical Genetics – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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