Morphological, Mechanical, and Thermal
Characterization of Poly(Lactic Acid)/Cellulose
Multiﬁlament Fibers Prepared by Melt Spinning
TASSADIT AOUAT, MUSTAPHA KACI
Laboratoire des Mat
es (LMPA), Universit
e de Bejaia, Bejaia 06000, Algeria
ERIC DEVAUX, CHRISTINE CAMPAGNE, AUR
Ecole Nationale Sup
erieure des Arts et Industries Textiles (ENSAIT), GEMTEX, 9 rue de l’Ermitage, Roubaix F-59100, France
LOIC DUMAZERT, JOS
Centre des Mat
eriaux des Mines d’Al
es, Ecole des Mines d’Al
es, 6, Avenue de Clavi
es 30319, France
Correspondence to: Tassadit Aouat; e-mail: email@example.com.
Received: January 28, 2016
Accepted: September 12, 2016
In this study, multiﬁlament ﬁbers based on neat poly(lactic acid) (PLA), PLA/cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs),
and PLA/cellulose microcrystalline (MCC) loaded at 1 and 3 wt.% were prepared by melt-spinning process in the presence of
PLA-grafted maleic anhydride (PLA-g-MA) used as the compatibilizer and PEG as the plasticizer. This study showed that the
incorporation of MCC in PLA matrix whatever the loading rate was not suitable for multiﬁlament ﬁbers spinning compared with
CNW, due to the restricted drawability and a poor dispersion of the MCC within the PLA matrix. Furthermore, the whole charac-
terization studies indicated that the incorporation of 1 wt.% of CNW in PLA with addition of the compatibilizer led to better ther-
mal stability, ﬂame retardancy, and multiﬁlament tensile properties compared with neat PLA and with other ﬁlled PLA
multiﬁlament ﬁbers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Technol 2018, 37, 21779; View this article online at wileyonline
library.com. DOI 10.1002/adv.21779
Cellulose, Composites, Melt spinning, Poly(lactic acid), Thermal properties
oly(lactic acid) is one of the most representative
biodegradable and bio-based polymers on the market
and is cost-competitive compared with petroleum-based poly-
PLA can be produced into ﬁbrous structures with dis-
tinct ﬁbers properties via melt spinning, solution spinning, or
more recently electrospinning.
PLA has processing advan-
tages that include high extrusion/spinning speeds, reduced
processing temperatures, and energy consumption.
previous applications in biomedical devices, the present inter-
est in PLA ﬁbers is the commercialization at a large scale, for
packaging or in the ﬁeld of tissue engineering.
The polymer nanocomposites are interesting to improve
various properties and to develop new functionalities for the
This approach has been described for the ﬁrst time in
2002 by Bourbigot et al
by incorporating Cloisite 30B in poly-
amide 6 (PA-6) for textile application. These additives have
enabled to offer improved properties to polymeric ﬁbers as
and electrical and thermal conductivity performances.
Literature survey reveals that the carbon nanotubes (CNT)
were the more used ﬁllers for this topic with promising results
for sensory composite materials applications.
In nanocomposites ﬁbers technology, since the diameter of
the ﬁbers is small (micro or nanometric scale), the ﬁllers
aspect ratio is a very important factor; it can affect the pro-
cessability and properties of the spun ﬁbers.
reinforcement is not suitable for ﬁber spinning because it is in
the range of the ﬁber itself, while the nano-sized reinforce-
ment is recommended to improve the spinnability and surface
ﬁnish of the ﬁbers. In addition, the incorporation of additives
in ﬁbers, even at low content (i.e., <5 wt.%), is challenging
because it can lead to spin-line failures. Further, the addition
of ﬁllers is known to restrict the drawability of the ﬁbers,
which decreases for higher concentrations of additives.
this respect, Solarski et al
have shown that problems in
Advances in Polymer Technology, Vol. 37, No. 4, 2018, DOI 10.1002/adv.21779
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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