DONOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE TESTING
Metagenomics in pooled plasma, with identification
of potential emerging infectious pathogens
Min Xu, Yashan Yang, Ya Zhou, Zhiyang Liu, Yu Liu, and Miao He
Many emerging infectious pathogens
are well known for existing in healthy blood donors and
could be transmitted via blood transfusion or plasma
derivatives usage. Therefore, there is an urgent need to
discover the pathogens in qualified blood donation to
avoid potential threats to blood safety.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:
The objective of
this study was to investigate the microbiome that existed
in pooled plasma from different manufacturers in
Chengdu and Guiyang. Random polymerase chain
reaction, large-scale clone sequencing, and
bioinformatics were used to investigate the
metagenomics and microbiome structure of pooled
plasma. Among detected microbiomes, potential
pathogens were subsequently identified.
After host DNA cleaning, 551 clones were
classified as bacteria; 88 clones were classified as
viruses, and four clones were considered to be parasites,
respectively. Thirteen kinds of bacteria and two kinds of
parasites that might potentially threaten blood safety
were identified along with six kinds of nonpathogenic
viruses. The infection status of one identified pathogen
Coxiella burnetii was evaluated in 1638 plasma samples.
The reactive rate of immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 was 1.10%
(18/1638), the reactive rate of IgG2 was 0.85% (14/
1638), and the reactive rate of IgM was 0.98% (16/1638).
Some pathogens that were already
considered as threats to blood safety were discovered in
those pooled plasma such as C. burnetii, Orientia
tsutsugamushi, and Plasmodium sp. As a result, we
should initiate some specific tests in the endemic area on
plasma donors to enhance the blood safety in China.
lood as well as blood products are used as part
of supporting medical strategies for saving
However, qualified donations are not as
safe as previously supposed.
Except for rou-
tinely tested pathogens such as human immunodeficiency
virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis, a
large number of infectious agents exist in qualified
blood, which can impact blood safety and might turn
into transfusion-transmitted diseases.
has been no investigation of the diverse pathogens in
pooled plasma from manufacturers to date in China for
evaluating the blood safety issue caused by undetected
Hence, we initiated this study to investigate emerging
infectious diseases (EIDs) in pooled plasma from manu-
facturers in Chengdu and Guiyang, China. Random poly-
merase chain reaction (PCR) and homology testing were
used to determine the microbes in the pooled plasma,
ABBREVIATIONS: EID(s) 5 emerging infectious disease(s);
PR 5 pathogen reduction.
From the Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of
Medical Sciences, and the Sichuan Blood Safety and Blood
Substitute International Science and Technology Cooperation
Base, Chengdu, China.
Address reprint requests to: Liu Yu, Institute of Blood
Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu
610052, China; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; or He Miao, Institute
of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences,
Chengdu 610052, China; e-mail: email@example.com.
MX and YY made equal contributions to the study.
This research has been supported by the plan of the
Department of Science and Technology of Sichuan Province
(2016HH0062). We thank the National Natural Science Founda-
tion of China (81700128). The findings and conclusions pre-
sented are those of the authors and do not necessarily
represent the official position of the funding agencies.
Received for publication August 18, 2017; revision
received November 10, 2017; and accepted November 10, 2017.
Volume 58, March 2018 TRANSFUSION 633