AbbreviationsACCAcetyl CoA carboxylaseACLATP citrate lyaseACSAcetyl CoA synthetaseADPAdenosine diphosphateAICAR5‐Aminoimidazole‐4‐carboxamide ribonucleotideAMPAdenosine monophosphateAMPKAdenosine monophosphate = activated protein kinaseATPAdenosine triphosphateCaMKKCa2+/calmodulin‐dependent protein kinase kinase‐βChREBPCarbohydrate response element binding proteinCPT‐1Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1CSCsCancer stem cellsFAOFatty acid oxidationFASFatty acid synthaseFOXOForkhead box OGLUT4Glucose transporter type 4GPATGlycerol‐3‐phosphate acyltransferaseHDACsHistone deacetylasesHDACHistone deacetylaseHIF‐1Hypoxia‐inducible factor 1HMG‐CoA3‐hydroxy‐3methyl‐glutaryl‐coenzyme AHNF‐4Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4LKB1Liver kinase B1MEF2ANuclear myocyte enhancer factorMLK3Mixed‐lineage kinase 3mTORMammalian target of rapamycinNSCLCNon‐small cell lung cancerPGC1αPeroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor gamma coactivator 1‐αPI3KPhosphatidylinositol 3‐kinasePPARPeroxisome proliferator activated receptorSCD1Stearoyl‐CoA desaturase‐1SIRTSirtuinSREBF1Sterol regulatory element‐binding transcription factor 1TAKTGF‐beta‐activated kinaseTIF‐1ATranscription inhibition factor‐1AULK1Unc‐51‐like autophagy activating kinase 1IntroductionAdenosine triphosphate (ATP), the direct energy source, contains two high‐energy phosphate bonds that store and transmit chemical energy named as “molecular currency” in life activities. During energy demand, ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP thereby releasing large amounts of energy. Conversely, ADP returns to ATP after acquiring one additional phosphate bond. Most of the cells sustain intracellular ATP/ADP ratio at 10:1. The ATP synthesis is dependent on catabolic reactions, such as the oxidative phosphorylation of glucose and the canonical mitochondrial oxidation pathway from ATP synthetase. In this sense, the cellular metabolism has a tight relation with energy homeostasis through the balance of ATP levels.In 1981, SNF1 protein kinase was identified as the energy regulator in yeast to adapt to glucose limitation and utilization
Cell Biology International – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ;
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