INTRODUCTIONSerotonin is a neurotransmitter that modulates various neuropsychological processes, such as mood, perception, reward, anger, aggression, appetite, memory, sexuality and attention. However, more than 90% of body serotonin is produced outside the central nervous system, particularly by duodenal enterochromaffin cells. Most of the blood serotonin is gut‐derived and stored within platelets. Conversely, a small fraction of serotonin is also found in the serum or plasma. Given that serotonin cannot cross the blood‐brain barrier, central and peripheral serotonergic systems are believed to be functionally separate.Accumulated evidence suggests that serotonin regulates virtually all aspects of peripheral organ physiology, including the regulation of energy balance and bone metabolism, as well as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, genitourinary and pulmonary functions. Like serotonin‐mediated regulation of insulin secretion, autocrine and paracrine mechanisms are thought to be important to the action of serotonin in peripheral organs. Interestingly, a recent study has shown that a lack of gut‐derived serotonin attenuates metabolic adaptation to fasting in adipose tissue and liver in mice. These results strongly suggest the possibility of endocrine regulation of remote organ metabolism by gut‐derived serotonin.Many critical biological functions exhibit circadian oscillations. Similarly, the circulating levels of important hormones such as insulin and cortisol have circadian variations. A
Clinical Endocrinology – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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