Introduction A NEW type of organization structure is spreading through industry and parts of the public sector, which has so far been very inadequately documented. The common label used to describe it is âMatrixâ though there is at present no agreed definition of the term. Usually the name is applied to structures which involve some form of dual or multiple authority, a âtwo bossâ situation, but the range of interpretation of the term is fairly wide, and will be explored below. Matrix structures have spread most rapidly in organizations where people work on projects,l such as research and development units,z advertising agencies3 and management con~ultancies~ they have also begun to appear but in non-project settings. An American report published some years ago6 gave a list of prestigious companies like American Cyanamid, AVCO, Carborundum, Caterpillar Tractor, General Telephone and Electronics, Hughes Aircraft, ITT, jMâs, Monsanto Chemical, National Cash Register, Prudential Insurance, TRM and Texas Instruments as users of matrix organization. In some of these only parts of the company, such as R and D, marketing, or construction activities may be structured on matrix lines, in others matrix organization extends to major divisions or the whole company. Examples of the
Journal of Management Studies – Wiley
Published: May 1, 1976
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