INTRODUCTIONHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer‐related mortality with 745 000 deaths each year. The rising incidence of HCC is correlated with the increasing prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections, especially in developing countries. Patients with HCC present with a wide range of disease that varies from early stage, which is often picked up on surveillance, to advanced infiltrative lesions that can cause symptoms yet can be hard to detect on cross‐sectional imaging. Rupture of HCC is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) as a T4 lesion and is staged similar to tumors with vascular or bile duct invasion. Rupture is theoretically associated with tumor dissemination and therefore an associated increased risk of recurrence and poor prognosis, however peritoneal spread seems to be a rare event.Ruptured HCC (rHCC) has a variable incidence with reported rates of less than 3% in Western countries compared with up to 26% in the East. Interestingly, the incidence of ruptured HCC may be declining due to earlier detection of HCC and therefore earlier stage of presentation. Several risk factors for HCC rupture have been identified including
Journal of Surgical Oncology – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ; ;
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