This study investigates the exposure of lead‐induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage, and apoptosis and also evaluates the therapeutic intervention using antioxidants in human renal proximal tubular cells (HK‐2 cells). Following treatment of HK‐2 cells with an increasing concentration of lead nitrate (0–50 μM) for 24 h, the intracellular ROS level increased whereas the GSH level decreased significantly in a dose‐dependent manner. Comet assay results revealed that lead nitrate showed the ability to increase the levels of DNA strand breaks in HK‐2 cells. Lead exposure also induced apoptosis through caspase‐3 activation at 30 μg/mL. Pretreatment with N‐acetylcysteine (NAC) and tannic acid showed a significant ameliorating effect on lead‐induced ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In conclusion, lead induces ROS, which may exacerbate the DNA damage and apoptosis via caspase‐3 activation. Additionally, supplementation of antioxidants such as NAC and tannic acid may be used as salvage therapy for lead‐induced DNA damage and apoptosis in an exposed person.
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology (Formerly Journal of Biochemical Toxicology) – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ; ; ;
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