Key Papers in Geriatric Psychiatry: mini‐mental state: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. M. Folstein, S. Folstein and P. McHugh, Journal of Psychiatric Research , 1975, 12 , 189‐198.

Key Papers in Geriatric Psychiatry: mini‐mental state: a practical method for grading the... INTRODUCTION ALISTAIR BURNS It is with something akin to a sense of awe that one reads the original publication for the Mini-Mental State Examination, considering how widely used it has become ever since. The rationale for the development of the `Mini-Mental State' (MMS) was that although available batteries which served as `clinical tests of the sensorium' were available, they were lengthy. The `Mini' is justi®ed because it concentrates only on the cognitive aspects of mental functioning and does not deal with measurements of mood, abnormal mental experiences and disordered forms of thinking. The validity and reliability of the MMS was based on a heterogeneous group of 206 patients with a variety of disorders (dementia, depression, pseudodementia, mania, schizophrenia and personality disorders) and in 63 normal subjects. The MMS successfully separated the diagnostic groups of dementia, depression with cognitive impairment and depression. Validity was assessed using the WAIS with the Pearson R correlation of 0.78 for verbal IQ and 0.66 for performance IQ between the two instruments. Reliability was tested thoroughlyÐ 24-hour test±retest reliability with the same examiner was 0.89 and between examiners 0.83. The patients who were clinically stable were measured over 28 days with a correlation of http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Wiley

Key Papers in Geriatric Psychiatry: mini‐mental state: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. M. Folstein, S. Folstein and P. McHugh, Journal of Psychiatric Research , 1975, 12 , 189‐198.

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ISSN
0885-6230
eISSN
1099-1166
DOI
10.1002/(SICI)1099-1166(199805)13:5<285::AID-GPS753>3.0.CO;2-V
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

INTRODUCTION ALISTAIR BURNS It is with something akin to a sense of awe that one reads the original publication for the Mini-Mental State Examination, considering how widely used it has become ever since. The rationale for the development of the `Mini-Mental State' (MMS) was that although available batteries which served as `clinical tests of the sensorium' were available, they were lengthy. The `Mini' is justi®ed because it concentrates only on the cognitive aspects of mental functioning and does not deal with measurements of mood, abnormal mental experiences and disordered forms of thinking. The validity and reliability of the MMS was based on a heterogeneous group of 206 patients with a variety of disorders (dementia, depression, pseudodementia, mania, schizophrenia and personality disorders) and in 63 normal subjects. The MMS successfully separated the diagnostic groups of dementia, depression with cognitive impairment and depression. Validity was assessed using the WAIS with the Pearson R correlation of 0.78 for verbal IQ and 0.66 for performance IQ between the two instruments. Reliability was tested thoroughlyÐ 24-hour test±retest reliability with the same examiner was 0.89 and between examiners 0.83. The patients who were clinically stable were measured over 28 days with a correlation of

Journal

International Journal of Geriatric PsychiatryWiley

Published: May 1, 1998

References

  • The case identification of dementia in the community: A comparison of methods
    Brayne, Brayne; Calloway, Calloway
  • The meaning of cognitive impairment in the elderly
    Folstein, Folstein; Anthony, Anthony; Parhad, Parhad; Duffy, Duffy; Gruenberg, Gruenberg
  • Memory complaints of elderly people in a population survey: Variation according to dementia stage and depression
    Grut, Grut; Jorm, Jorm; Fratiglioni, Fratiglioni; Forsell, Forsell; Viitanen, Viitanen; Winblad, Winblad
  • Staging the severity of dementia: Comparison of clinical (CDR, DSM‐III‐R), functional (ADL, IADL) and cognitive (MMSE) scales
    Juva, Juva; Sulkavva, Sulkavva; Erkinjuntti, Erkinjuntti; Ylikoski, Ylikoski; Valvanne, Valvanne; Tilvis, Tilvis
  • Effect of age and education on performance on the Mini‐Mental State Examination in a healthy older population and during the course of Alzheimer's disease
    Magni, Magni; Binetti, Binetti; Cappa, Cappa; Bianchetti, Bianchetti; Trabucchi, Trabucchi
  • Sensitivity of the Mini‐Mental State Examination to frontal lobe dysfunction in normal aging
    Axelrod, Axelrod; Goldman, Goldman; Henry, Henry
  • The Mini‐Mental State Examination: identifying the most efficient variables for detecting cognitive impairment in the elderly
    Braekhus, Braekhus; Laake, Laake; Engedal, Engedal
  • Relationship between physical performance and self‐perceived physical function
    Cress, Cress; Schechtman, Schechtman; Mulrow, Mulrow; Fiatarone, Fiatarone; Gorety, Gorety; Buchner, Buchner
  • The meaning of cognitive impairment in the elderly
    Folstein, Folstein; Anthony, Anthony; Parhad, Parhad; Duffy, Duffy; Gruenberg, Gruenberg
  • Mini‐Mental State. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician
    Folstein, Folstein; Folstein, Folstein; McHugh, McHugh
  • The interuncal distance in Alzheimer disease and age‐associated memory impairment
    Laakso, Laakso; Sommen, Sommen; Partaneu, Partaneu; Hallikainen, Hallikainen; Lehtovirta, Lehtovirta; Hanrinen, Hanrinen; Vainio, Vainio; Riekkinenm, Riekkinenm
  • Validation of a telephone version of the Mini‐Mental State Examination
    Roccaforte, Roccaforte; Burke, Burke; Bayer, Bayer; Wengel, Wengel

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