preferred. Contributors should consult the Royal Society
pamphlet Quanࢼ ࢼ es, Units and Symbols (1975) and the IBP
pamphlet Quanࢼ ࢼ es Units and Symbols for IBP Synthesis (1975).
Scien ﬁ c names. The complete scien ﬁ c name (genus, species)
should be cited for every organism when ﬁ rst men oned.
Subsequently, the generic name may be abbreviated to an ini al,
except where intervening references to other genera would cause
confusion. Common names of organisms, if used, must be accom-
panied by the correct scien ﬁ c name on ﬁ rst men on. Scien ﬁ c
names of species should be italicized. Naming authori es need not
be given, except where species iden ty is a focus of the science
(for instance where iden ty is controversial or in ques on). In such
cases naming authori es should be given only on ﬁ rst men on (and
not in the tle).
References. In the text, references should be made by giving the
author’s name with the year of publica on, with one or both in
parentheses. Thus, ‘Smith (2002) found that ﬁ sh...’ OR ‘Fish were
found mainly in deep water (Smith, 2002)’. When reference is
made to a work by three authors, all names should be given when
cited for the ﬁ rst me and therea er using only the ﬁ rst name and
adding ‘et al.’. For four or more authors, the ﬁ rst name followed by
‘et al.’ should be used on all occasions. If several papers by the
same author(s) and from the same year are cited a, b, c, etc., should
be put a
er the year of publica on. In the reference list, provide
all authors for papers with six and fewer authors. For papers with
more than six authors, list the ﬁ rst six authors followed by ‘et al.’.
References should be listed in alphabe cal order at the end of
the. Titles of journals should not be abbreviated. Unpublished
material, except for PhD theses, should not be included among
the references. View an example of the reference list in the Author
Guidelines web site.
Colour illustra ons. It is the policy of Freshwater Biology for authors
to pay the full cost for the reproduc on of their artwork in colour in
print. The cost of colour prin ng is 150 GBP for the ﬁ rst ﬁ gure and
all subsequent ﬁ gures 50 GBP each. The colour work agreement
(CWA) form may be downloaded online from Author Guidelines or
request a copy from the Produc on Editor. Therefore, please com-
plete and return a CWA form for ﬁ gures reproduced in colour for
print, and only by post to the Publisher at: Customer Services (OPI),
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, European Distribu on Centre, New Era Es-
tate, Oldlands Way, Bognor Regis, West Sussex, PO22 9NQ, UK.
For queries pertaining to colour ﬁ gure charges, please contact the
Produc on Editor (email@example.com).
Suppor ng Informa on. Suppor ng informa on can be published
as web materials on the Freshwater Biology web site at the Editor’s
discre on. Note that if material is integral to the ar cle it should be
published as part of the ar cle and not as Suppor ng informa on.
Suppor ng informa on must be important, ancillary informa on
that is relevant to the parent ar cle but which does not or can-
not appear in the printed edi on of the journal. In order to pro-
vide long term access to suppor ng informa on, such material
must be mounted on the Freshwater Biology web site rather than
on authors’ sites. Authors should note that suppor ng informa on
is merely ’linked’ to the ar cle but will not be organised into any
easily searched database; nor will it be subject to copy-edi ng. Au-
thors are responsible for the prepara on of suppor ng informa on,
which should be supplied in a format that will be most accessible
Welfare and legal policy. Researchers must have proper regard
for conserva on and animal welfare considera ons. A en on
is drawn to the ‘Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research’
published in each January issue of the journal Animal Behaviour
since 1991. Any possible adverse consequences of the work for
popula ons or individual organisms must be weighed against
the possible gains in knowledge and its prac cal applica ons.
Authors are required to sign a declara on that their work
conforms to the legal requirements of the country in which it was
carried out (available from h p://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/fwb),
but editors may seek advice from referees on ethical ma ers and
the ﬁ nal decision will rest with the editors.
Author Guidelines (shortened version)
Complete details are given in the Author Guidelines online.
Electronic submission. All manuscripts should be submi ed
electronically through the Freshwater Biology ScholarOne Manu-
scripts (S1M) web site: h p://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/fwb.
The corresponding author will need to create an account the ﬁ rst
me he/she accesses the site, and will be asked to provide full con-
tact details. Freshwater Biology – S1M will then create a user name
and password which should be retained for future access to the
If the author is absolutely unable to submit the manuscript
through Freshwater Biology – S1M, he/she should contact
Professor Alan Hildrew (firstname.lastname@example.org) or Professor
Colin Townsend (email@example.com) by e-mail.
Special issues. Freshwater Biology publishes two-three themed
issues yearly. Visit the Special Issues page at h p://www.blackwell
publishing.com/pdf/SI_guidelines_sept2010.pdf for more informa-
on. Only papers for those Special Issues that have been agreed
with the Special Issues Editor (Professor David L. Strayer) should
be submi ed via Freshwater Biology – S1M. Guest Editors should
consult the Guidelines for Guest Editors of Special Issues, available
at h p://www.blackwellpublishing.com/pdf/fwb_speciss.pdf.
Presenta on of manuscripts. A single ﬁ le should be prepared con-
taining the following:
(a) Title page. This should include the tle, list of authors names,
ins tute or laboratory of origin, name, postal address and email
address of the author to whom proofs should be sent, an ab-
breviated tle for use as a running head line and ﬁ ve keywords,
which should be relevant for literature searching and each nor-
mally comprising not more than two words.
(b) Summary. All papers should include a summary, in short
numbered paragraphs, limited to about 3% of the length of the
text, and in any case to not more than 500 words. This should
provide a concise statement of the scope of the work and its
principal ﬁ ndings and be fully intelligible without reference to
the main text.
(c) Introduction. This should contain a clear statement of the
reason for doing the work, outlining essential background
information but should not include either the results or con-
(d) Methods. This should be concise but provide suﬃ cient details
to allow the work to be repeated. Suppliers of materials should
be named and their loca on (town, state/county, country)
(e) Results. This should not include material appropriate to the Dis-
(f) Discussion. This should highlight the signi
ﬁ cance of the results
and place them in the context of other work.
(j) Figure legends.
(k) Illustraࢼ ons. The original drawings should not be sent un l the
Editor requests them.
For further informa on on electronic submission of artwork, please
see sec on on tables, ﬁ gures and illustra ons in the Author Guide-
There are no formal limits to the length of papers, but most papers
(except review ar cles) should be no longer than 9,000 words in
total (text plus references, excep ng Figs and Tables).
Abbrevia ons and units. Full names with uncommon abbre-
via ons must be given with the ﬁ rst men on; new abbrevia-
ons should be coined only for unwieldy names and should
not be used at all unless the names occur frequently. Unusual
abbrevia ons should be iden ﬁ ed in the tle and summary, and
used sparingly in the introduc on and discussion. SI units are