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University of Toronto, Canada ISSN 0266-4720 (Print) ISSN 1468-0394 (Online) Ning Xiong For submission instructions, subscription and all other information visit: wileyonlinelibrary.com\/ Ma \u00a8lardalen University, Sweden journal\/exsy. Jin Zhi Expert Systems accepts articles for Open Access publication. Please visit http:\/\/olabout. Chinese Academy of Science, China wiley.com\/WileyCDA\/Section\/id-406241.html for further information about OnlineOpen. Expert Systems: The Journal of Knowledge Engineering Editor-in-Chief, Jon G. Hall, Expert Systems, Computing Department, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK Guide for authors Note to NIH Grantees: Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see www.wiley.com\/go\/nihmandate Expert Systems: The Journal of Knowledge Engineering is a technical journal that is published five times a year, and is devoted to all aspects of knowledge engineering. Within the scope of the Journal are individual methods and techniques in knowledge acquisition and representation, as well as their application and evaluation, and the construction of systems based thereon. The Journal welcomes articles on any subject within its remit. Articles should contain significant technical information that will be of general interest to people working in that field and should present information on the technical aspects of the work reported, rather than on the application domain. Any system presented should be described in useful detail with examples to illustrate its construction and use. Articles should display a well-grounded knowledge of the current scene in their field. All submitted articles are subject to refereeing. 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