Abbreviations9,10‐DiHOME9(10)‐dihydroxy‐12Z‐octadecenoic acid12,13‐diHOME12(13)‐dihydroxy‐9Z‐octadecenoic acid11‐HETE11‐hydroxy‐5Z,8Z,12E,14Z‐eicosatetraenoic acid12‐HETE12‐hydroxy‐5Z,8Z,10E,14Z‐eicosatetraenoic acid15‐HETE15‐hydroxy‐5Z,8Z,11Z,13E‐eicosatetraenoic acid5‐HETE5‐hydroxy‐6E,8Z,11Z,14Z‐eicosatetraenoic acid9‐HODE9‐hydroxy‐10E,12Z‐octadecadienoic acid13‐HODE13‐hydroxy‐9Z,11E‐octadecadienoic acid12(S)‐HEPE12S‐hydroxy‐5Z,8Z,10E,14Z,17Z‐eicosapentaenoic acid5(S),6(R)‐LXA45S,6R,15S‐trihydroxy‐7E,9E,11Z, 13E‐eicosatetraenoic acid, lipoxin A4AhRaryl hydrocarbon receptorHIF1αhypoxia‐inducible factor 1αMDRmultidrug resistance protein 1PDTCammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamatePESTpenicillin + streptomycinTEERtransepithelial electrical resistanceTMS2,4,3′,5′‐tetramethoxystilbeneYC‐13‐(5′‐hydroxymethyl‐2′‐furyl)‐1‐benzyl indazoleα‐Naphthoflavone2‐phenyl‐4H‐naphtho[1,2‐b]pyran‐4‐oneIntroductionThe gastrointestinal tract is continuously exposed to dietary components and antigens, as well as a diversity of microorganisms. The intestinal epithelium is a selective barrier that plays an essential role in maintaining gut homeostasis. It is permeable to nutrients and essential macromolecules but constitutes an obstacle for luminal antigens, intestinal bacteria and harmful macromolecules (Turner, ). The intestinal epithelial barrier also plays a fundamental immunoregulatory function by participating in the coordination of immune responses (Peterson and Artis, ). Stimuli such as cytokines, nutrients and bacteria can modulate epithelial permeability (Turner, ; Natividad and Verdu, ; Bischoff et al., ), and such alterations in permeability of the intestinal epithelium have been linked to a number of intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, inflammatory bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer and celiac disease (Bischoff et al., ).Human colon carcinoma cell lines such as Caco‐2 and T84 cells, when grown to confluence in monolayers, have excellent barrier properties, as demonstrated by a low permeability to agents such as mannitol, a high transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), and the development of
British Journal of Pharmacology – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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