University of California at Santa Barbara MADELYN SILVER University of California at Santa Barbara INTRODUCTION The existence of ingroup favouritism in intergroup relations has been repeatedly demonstrated under conditions in which outcomes for ingroup members are made explicitly independent of those for the outgroup (e.g., Ferguson and Kelley, 1964; Rabbie and Wilkins, 1971). The absence of implicit competitive orientation in these studies, however, is difficult to establish. As Turner (1975) suggests, the effect of categorization into groups may be mediated by an inherent competition for âpositive social identityâ. To generate what he terms social competition, only two conditions are necessary: (1) salience of some basis for distinction between groups, and (2) the availability of differentially value actions relevant to the categorization. With this view, it remains ambiguous whether the presence of additional ârealisticâ conflict has distinctive effects or whether its effects can be subsumed in one or the other of the two conditions specified above. Yet another ambiguity in the literature on ingroup favouritism lies in whether the bias is achieved by enhancing the ingroup or deprecating the outgroup or both. One of the advantages of the research paradigm suggested by Tajfel(l970) is its potential for distinguishing between
European Journal of Social Psychology – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 1978
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