INTRODUCTIONVitamin D deficiency is frequent in adults and children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially Crohn's disease (CD). Besides the well‐documented effects of vitamin D deficiency on bone metabolism, the relationship between vitamin D and IBD is complex and has been partially investigated only. Indeed, the relative risk of being affected by CD, but not ulcerative colitis (UC), is higher in northern countries than in southern countries, with a north–south gradient and is higher in areas characterized by low exposure to sunlight. Moreover, in the northern hemisphere, sunlight exposure influences the pattern of disease relapse in IBD, the onset of UC and exacerbations of CD. A nationwide analysis carried out in the United States has recently found that low overall ultraviolet (UV) exposure is associated with an increased risk for hospitalization and surgery in patients with IBD.Low sunlight exposure affects the conversion of vitamin D precursors to its activated form, which is the main source of serum vitamin D levels, by far exceeding the importance of dietary vitamin D intake and malabsorption as caused by disease activity and surgery. Published data on sunlight exposure in IBD mainly refer to northern and central European countries, which are characterized by unfavorable
Journal of Digestive Diseases – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ;
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