Reactions of anger, rage, and hatred in the wake of September 11 terrorist attack are considered in light of the psychology of emotion and stress. Acknowledging underlying grief and fear through self‐reflection, writing, and social communication is likely to reduce unchecked anger, rage, and hatred. Hate crimes may also have some psychological bases in responses to stress called “flight‐or‐fight.” When flight is not an option, identifying and hating an enemy may have had evolutionary value for survival. This response creates harm in the current situation. An alternative cooperative response to stress, called “tend‐and‐befriend” by researchers, will be more helpful.
Analyses of Social Issues & Public Policy – Wiley
Published: Dec 1, 2002