IntroductionThe non‐stoichiometric nickel oxide (NixO) is a promising transparent p‐type semiconductor with excellent chemical stability. Its microstructure and electrical properties can be tuned by various post‐treatments and metal doping (e.g., Li, Cu, Zn, and Al). NixO has been widely adopted as hole transport/injection layer in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), the opto‐electronic properties being in focus of this research.It is well‐known that the structural and optical properties as well as the surface morphology of thin films depend on the deposition techniques, deposition conditions, and post‐deposition processing. Their impact on the properties of metal oxide films has become of great interest in recent years, since very specific properties are required for optimal device performance. In particular, an accurate control of the refractive index of individual layers of optical multilayer structures is highly desirable. In case of NixO films, it is well‐known that the composition affects their structural properties and surface morphology. However, the impact of composition on the refractive index has not been studied in detail yet.Experimental SectionWe deposited NixO thin films of different composition x on c‐sapphire substrates by ion beam sputtering (IBS). In the IBS process ions of the process gas, in our case
Physica Status Solidi (B) Basic Solid State Physics – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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