Immunostimulatory activity of Bacillus spores

Immunostimulatory activity of Bacillus spores Bacillus species, typically Bacillus subtilis, are being used as probiotics and mounting evidence indicates that Bacillus species are important for development of a robust gut‐associated lymphoid system (GALT). We used a number of gut isolates of Bacillus incorporating three species, B. subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus flexus to evaluate the nature of interaction between spores and the GALT. In mice orally administered with spores, evidence of cell proliferation was determined in the germinal centers of Peyer's patches. Stimulation of antigen‐presenting cells and T lymphocytes was also markedly enhanced. Cytokines were shown to be induced in spleens and mesenteric lymph nodes of mice including the proinflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor‐α and IL‐6. We also demonstrated that vegetative cells of B. subtilis can stimulate expression of the toll‐like receptor (TLR) genes for TLR2 and TLR4. However, we were able to show that spores could not stimulate either and must, by default, interact with another TLR and by this mechanism help activate innate immunity. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Pathogens and Disease Wiley

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
© 2008 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved
ISSN
0928-8244
eISSN
2049-632X
DOI
10.1111/j.1574-695X.2008.00415.x
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Bacillus species, typically Bacillus subtilis, are being used as probiotics and mounting evidence indicates that Bacillus species are important for development of a robust gut‐associated lymphoid system (GALT). We used a number of gut isolates of Bacillus incorporating three species, B. subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus flexus to evaluate the nature of interaction between spores and the GALT. In mice orally administered with spores, evidence of cell proliferation was determined in the germinal centers of Peyer's patches. Stimulation of antigen‐presenting cells and T lymphocytes was also markedly enhanced. Cytokines were shown to be induced in spleens and mesenteric lymph nodes of mice including the proinflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor‐α and IL‐6. We also demonstrated that vegetative cells of B. subtilis can stimulate expression of the toll‐like receptor (TLR) genes for TLR2 and TLR4. However, we were able to show that spores could not stimulate either and must, by default, interact with another TLR and by this mechanism help activate innate immunity.

Journal

Pathogens and DiseaseWiley

Published: Jul 1, 2008

References

  • Probiotic bacteria stimulate gut epithelial cell proliferation in rat
    Ichikawa, Ichikawa; Kuroiwa, Kuroiwa; Inagaki, Inagaki; Shineha, Shineha; Nishihira, Nishihira; Satomi, Satomi; Sakata, Sakata
  • Roles of Bacillus endospores in the environment
    Nicholson, Nicholson
  • Anthrolysin O and other gram‐positive cytolysins are toll‐like receptor 4 agonists
    Park, Park; Ng, Ng; Maeda, Maeda; Rest, Rest; Karin, Karin
  • Histological alterations of intestinal villi in chickens fed dried Bacillus subtilis var. natto
    Samanya, Samanya; Yamauchi, Yamauchi
  • Sporeformers as human probiotics
    Sanders, Sanders; Morelli, Morelli; Tompkins, Tompkins

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