We report a 61‐yr‐old kidney transplant recipient with human Parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection presenting as a severe pancytopenia 1 month after transplantation. Bone marrow aspiration revealed severe erythroid hypoplasia with giant and dystrophic proerythroblasts. Bone marrow cells were positive for HPV B19 DNA detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pancytopenia resolved shortly after administration of intravenous immunoglobulins. Nineteen cases of HPV B19 infection in organ transplant recipients have been so far reported in the literature. Immunocompromised patients should be considered at risk from developing symptomatic HPV B19 infections. In such patients, specific anti‐HPV B19 IgM and IgG antibodies may be absent or transient and therefore their negativity cannot rule out the diagnosis of HPV B19 infestation. Bone marrow smear morphological findings may suggest the diagnosis but testing for viral DNA by PCR is mandatory. Patients may spontaneously recover. However, since specific anti‐viral therapy is not currently available, intravenous immunoglobulin administration appears to be the more efficacious treatment.
Clinical Transplantation – Wiley
Published: Feb 1, 1999
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