How to get ahead: the origin, evolution and function of bicoid

How to get ahead: the origin, evolution and function of bicoid In Drosophila, a Bcd protein gradient orchestrates patterning along the anteroposterior embryonic axis. However, studies of basal flies and other insects have revealed that bcd is a derived Hox3 gene found only in higher dipterans. To understand how bcd acquired its role in flies and how anteroposterior patterning mechanisms have evolved, I first review key features of bcd function in Drosophila: anterior localization and transcriptional and translation control of gene expression. I then discuss investigations of bcd in other higher dipterans that have provided insight into the evolution of regulatory interactions and the Bcd gradient. Finally, I review studies of Drosophila and other insects that address the evolution of bcd function and integration of bcd into ancestral regulatory mechanisms. I suggest further comparative studies may allow us to identify the intermediate steps in bcd evolution. This will make bcd a paradigm for the origin and evolution of genes and regulatory networks. BioEssays 27:904–913, 2005. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png BioEssays Wiley

How to get ahead: the origin, evolution and function of bicoid

BioEssays, Volume 27 (9) – Sep 1, 2005

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
ISSN
0265-9247
eISSN
1521-1878
D.O.I.
10.1002/bies.20285
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

In Drosophila, a Bcd protein gradient orchestrates patterning along the anteroposterior embryonic axis. However, studies of basal flies and other insects have revealed that bcd is a derived Hox3 gene found only in higher dipterans. To understand how bcd acquired its role in flies and how anteroposterior patterning mechanisms have evolved, I first review key features of bcd function in Drosophila: anterior localization and transcriptional and translation control of gene expression. I then discuss investigations of bcd in other higher dipterans that have provided insight into the evolution of regulatory interactions and the Bcd gradient. Finally, I review studies of Drosophila and other insects that address the evolution of bcd function and integration of bcd into ancestral regulatory mechanisms. I suggest further comparative studies may allow us to identify the intermediate steps in bcd evolution. This will make bcd a paradigm for the origin and evolution of genes and regulatory networks. BioEssays 27:904–913, 2005. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Journal

BioEssaysWiley

Published: Sep 1, 2005

References

  • Cytoplasmic flows localize injected oskar RNA in Drosophila oocytes
    Glotzer, Glotzer; Saffrich, Saffrich; Glotzer, Glotzer; Ephrussi, Ephrussi
  • Live imaging of endogenous RNA reveals a diffusion and entrapment mechanism for nanos mRNA localization in Drosophila
    Forrest, Forrest; Gavis, Gavis
  • Mechanism and Bicoid‐dependent control of hairy stripe 7 expression in the posterior region of the Drosophila embryo
    La Rosee, La Rosee; Hader, Hader; Taubert, Taubert; Rivera‐Pomar, Rivera‐Pomar; Jackle, Jackle
  • Identification of Drosophila Bicoid‐interacting proteins using a custom two‐hybrid selection
    Zhu, Zhu; Hanes, Hanes
  • Cooperative DNA‐binding by Bicoid provides a mechanism for threshold‐ dependent gene activation in the Drosophila embryo
    Burz, Burz; Rivera‐Pomar, Rivera‐Pomar; Jäckle, Jäckle; Hanes, Hanes
  • Isolation of mutations that disrupt cooperative DNA binding by the Drosophila bicoid protein
    Burz, Burz; Hanes, Hanes
  • Sequence interval within the PEST motif of Bicoid is important for translational repression of caudal mRNA in the anterior region of the Drosophila embryo
    Niessing, Niessing; Dostatni, Dostatni; Jackle, Jackle; Rivera‐Pomar, Rivera‐Pomar
  • A strategy for mapping bicoid on the phylogenetic tree
    Brown, Brown; Fellers, Fellers; Shippy, Shippy; Denell, Denell; Stauber, Stauber
  • Expression patterns of the rogue Hox genes Hox3/zen and fushi tarazu in the apterygote insect Thermobia domestica
    Hughes, Hughes; Liu, Liu; Kaufman, Kaufman
  • Maternal expression and early zygotic regulation of the Hox3/zen gene in the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria
    Dearden, Dearden; Grbic, Grbic; Falciani, Falciani; Akam, Akam
  • The probability of duplicate gene preservation by subfunctionalization
    Lynch, Lynch; Force, Force
  • Preservation of duplicate genes by complementary, degenerative mutations
    Force, Force; Lynch, Lynch; Pickett, Pickett; Amores, Amores; Yan, Yan
  • The probability of preservation of a newly arisen gene duplicate
    Lynch, Lynch; O'Hely, O'Hely; Walsh, Walsh; Force, Force
  • Anterior localization of maternal mRNAs in a short germ insect lacking bicoid
    Bucher, Bucher; Farzana, Farzana; Brown, Brown; Klingler, Klingler
  • Developmental evolution: Axial patterning in insects
    Dearden, Dearden; Akam, Akam
  • Nanos plays a conserved role in axial patterning outside of the Diptera
    Lall, Lall; Ludwig, Ludwig; Patel, Patel

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