Homogeneity tests of long seasonal temperature series from Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Norway indicate that homogeneous series are rare and that an abrupt change of the relative mean level is a much more common type of non‐homogeneity than a gradual change. Furthermore, negative shifts were 20% more common than positive shifts. Homogenized temperature anomaly series that were constructed for six 5° latitude×5° longitude grid boxes indicate that the temporal pattern of temperture changes has been similar in different parts of Sweden since 1861. The annual mean temperature over Sweden was found to have increased by 0ċ68°C from the period 1861–1890 to 1965–1994. The corresponding changes for the seasons were: +0ċ18°C (winter), +1ċ40 (spring), +0ċ42 (summer) and +0ċ60 (autumn). A direct comparson shows that non‐homogeneities in the temperature series from individual grid boxes in a global data set can be as large as the total changes observed. We estimate that a 95 per cent confidence interval for the error, due to non‐homogeneous long station records, in estimates of hemispheric temperature changes over land regions since the period 1861–1890 is ±0ċ1°C for the Northern Hemisphere and the globe and ±0ċ25°C for the Southern Hemisphere. For a region consisting of about five grid boxes, this error is ±0ċ5°C. The large non‐homogeneities in individual grid‐box series in the global data set is partly a consequence of the fact that homogeneous climate data are not always easily available for the open research community. We urge that efforts are made to improve this situation.
International Journal of Climatology – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 1997
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