INTRODUCTIONUnderstanding the factors influencing species' distributions is a core challenge of ecology and biogeography (Gaston & Blackburn, ; Sexton, McIntyre, Angert, & Rice, ). Climate has been recognized as one of the main determinants of species' ranges (Huntley, Berry, Cramer, & McDonald, ; Pearson & Dawson, ; Pither, ), with species' ranges contracting and expanding in response to past and recent climate change (Davis & Shaw, ; Parmesan, ; Svenning, Normand, & Kageyama, ; Walther et al., ). However, other factors than climate influence species' distributions (Guisan & Thuiller, ; Pacifici et al., ; Wisz et al., ). For example, historical contingencies and dispersal abilities can shape distributions and the extent to which potential ranges are occupied, with important implications for predicting future distributions (Svenning & Skov, , ). Biotic interactions also affect species' distributions (Sexton et al., ). However, biotic interactions are dynamic in space and time, interact in complex ways with climate (Gilman, Urban, Tewksbury, Gilchrist, & Holt, ; Tylianakis, Didham, Bascompte, & Wardle, ) and thus pose challenges for predicting species responses to global change (Kissling et al., ; Wisz et al., ). Resource specialists present a unique opportunity to understand the factors affecting distributions, given that they have a simpler and
Diversity and Distributions – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ; ; ; ;
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