High‐throughput identification of RNA nuclear enrichment sequences

High‐throughput identification of RNA nuclear enrichment sequences In the post‐genomic era, thousands of putative noncoding regulatory regions have been identified, such as enhancers, promoters, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and a cadre of small peptides. These ever‐growing catalogs require high‐throughput assays to test their functionality at scale. Massively parallel reporter assays have greatly enhanced the understanding of noncoding DNA elements en masse. Here, we present a massively parallel RNA assay (MPRNA) that can assay 10,000 or more RNA segments for RNA‐based functionality. We applied MPRNA to identify RNA‐based nuclear localization domains harbored in lncRNAs. We examined a pool of 11,969 oligos densely tiling 38 human lncRNAs that were fused to a cytosolic transcript. After cell fractionation and barcode sequencing, we identified 109 unique RNA regions that significantly enriched this cytosolic transcript in the nucleus including a cytosine‐rich motif. These nuclear enrichment sequences are highly conserved and over‐represented in global nuclear fractionation sequencing. Importantly, many of these regions were independently validated by single‐molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of MPRNA for future investigation of RNA‐based functionalities. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The EMBO Journal Wiley
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Publisher
Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Copyright
© 2018 EMBO
ISSN
0261-4189
eISSN
1460-2075
D.O.I.
10.15252/embj.201798452
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

In the post‐genomic era, thousands of putative noncoding regulatory regions have been identified, such as enhancers, promoters, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and a cadre of small peptides. These ever‐growing catalogs require high‐throughput assays to test their functionality at scale. Massively parallel reporter assays have greatly enhanced the understanding of noncoding DNA elements en masse. Here, we present a massively parallel RNA assay (MPRNA) that can assay 10,000 or more RNA segments for RNA‐based functionality. We applied MPRNA to identify RNA‐based nuclear localization domains harbored in lncRNAs. We examined a pool of 11,969 oligos densely tiling 38 human lncRNAs that were fused to a cytosolic transcript. After cell fractionation and barcode sequencing, we identified 109 unique RNA regions that significantly enriched this cytosolic transcript in the nucleus including a cytosine‐rich motif. These nuclear enrichment sequences are highly conserved and over‐represented in global nuclear fractionation sequencing. Importantly, many of these regions were independently validated by single‐molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of MPRNA for future investigation of RNA‐based functionalities.

Journal

The EMBO JournalWiley

Published: Jan 15, 2018

Keywords: ; ; ; ;

References

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