Hekla Volcano, Iceland, in the 20th Century: Lava Volumes, Production Rates, and Effusion Rates

Hekla Volcano, Iceland, in the 20th Century: Lava Volumes, Production Rates, and Effusion Rates Lava flow thicknesses, volumes, and effusion rates provide essential information for understanding the behavior of eruptions and their associated deformation signals. Preeruption and posteruption elevation models were generated from historical stereo photographs to produce the lava flow thickness maps for the last five eruptions at Hekla volcano, Iceland. These results provide precise estimation of lava bulk volumes: V1947–1948 = 0.742 ± 0.138 km3, V1970 = 0.205 ± 0.012 km3, V1980–1981 = 0.169 ± 0.016 km3, V1991 = 0.241 ± 0.019 km3, and V2000 = 0.095 ± 0.005 km3 and reveal variable production rate through the 20th century. These new volumes improve the linear correlation between erupted volume and coeruption tilt change, indicating that tilt may be used to determine eruption volume. During eruptions the active vents migrate 325–480 m downhill, suggesting rough excess pressures of 8–12 MPa and that the gradient of this excess pressure increases from 0.4 to 11 Pa s−1 during the 20th century. We suggest that this is related to increased resistance along the eruptive conduit. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Geophysical Research Letters Wiley

Hekla Volcano, Iceland, in the 20th Century: Lava Volumes, Production Rates, and Effusion Rates

Loading next page...
 
/lp/wiley/hekla-volcano-iceland-in-the-20th-century-lava-volumes-production-DlCFJElYFQ
Publisher
Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Copyright
©2018. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0094-8276
eISSN
1944-8007
D.O.I.
10.1002/2017GL076887
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Lava flow thicknesses, volumes, and effusion rates provide essential information for understanding the behavior of eruptions and their associated deformation signals. Preeruption and posteruption elevation models were generated from historical stereo photographs to produce the lava flow thickness maps for the last five eruptions at Hekla volcano, Iceland. These results provide precise estimation of lava bulk volumes: V1947–1948 = 0.742 ± 0.138 km3, V1970 = 0.205 ± 0.012 km3, V1980–1981 = 0.169 ± 0.016 km3, V1991 = 0.241 ± 0.019 km3, and V2000 = 0.095 ± 0.005 km3 and reveal variable production rate through the 20th century. These new volumes improve the linear correlation between erupted volume and coeruption tilt change, indicating that tilt may be used to determine eruption volume. During eruptions the active vents migrate 325–480 m downhill, suggesting rough excess pressures of 8–12 MPa and that the gradient of this excess pressure increases from 0.4 to 11 Pa s−1 during the 20th century. We suggest that this is related to increased resistance along the eruptive conduit.

Journal

Geophysical Research LettersWiley

Published: Jan 28, 2018

Keywords: ; ; ; ; ;

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches

$49/month

Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

$588

$360/year

billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial