nent is located in the caudal-basal-medial part of the frontal lobe and contains the paralimbic cortex of the anterior cingulate, parolfactory , and caudal orbitofrontal regions. The third component is more rostral in location and contains the heteromodal (high-order) association cortex in areas 9, 10, 11, 12 (rostral), 45, 46, and 47 of Brodmann (see Figure) C241. The terms âprefrontal cortexâ and the associated âfrontal lobe syndromeâ generally refer only to the paralimbic and heteromodal components. These are the regions of the frontal lobe that will be emphasized in the following comments. The case of Phineas Gage (also known as the Boston Crowbar Case), described more than a century ago by Harlow [ 101, remains paradigmatic for research on the frontal lobes. Gage was a reliable and upright foreman who became profane, irascible, and irresponsible following an accident during which a tamping rod was blown through his frontal lobes. The many reports that have been published since Harlowâs paper have provided additional support for the conclusions derived from the case of Phineas Gage, namely, that frontal lobe damage can lead to dramatic alterations of personality and conduct while leaving most cognitive and sensory-motor functions relatively intact. Over the
Annals of Neurology – Wiley
Published: Apr 1, 1986
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