Robert M. Entman is a n associate professor of communication studies, journalism, and political science and chair of the program in Communications, Media, a n d Public Policy at the Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research at Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. He gratefully acknowledges the comments of students in his âMass Communication and Democratic Theoryâ seminar, especially Andrew Rojecki. Copyright 0 1993Journal of Communication 43(4), Autumn. 0021-9916/93/$5.00 Journal o Communzcatzon,Antumn 199.3 f one location-such as a speech, utterance, news report, or novel-to that consciousness. (A representative list of classic and recent citations would include: Edelman, 1993; Entman & Rojecki, 1993; Fiske & Taylor, 1991; Gamson, 1992; Goffman, 1974; Graber, 1988; Iyengar, 1991; Kahneman & Tversky, 1984; Pan & Kosicki, 1993; Riker, 1986; Snow & Benford, 1988; Tuchman, 1978; White, 1987; Zaller, 1992.) A literature review suggests that framing is often defined casually, with much left to an assumed tacit understanding of reader and researcher. After all, the words frame, f r a m ing, and .framework are common outside of formal scholarly discourse, and their connotation there is roughly the same. The goal here is to identify and make explicit common tendencies among the various uses of
Journal of Communication – Wiley
Published: Dec 1, 1993
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