Formation of PdNiZn thin film at oil‐water interface: XPS
study and application as Suzuki‐Miyaura catalyst
Parvin Fatahi | S. Jafar Hoseini
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of
Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj
S. Jafar Hoseini, Department of Chemistry,
Faculty of Sciences, Yasouj University,
Yasouj 7591874831, Iran.
Nanosheet of PdNiZn and nanosphere of PdNiZn/reduced‐graphene oxide
(RGO) with sub‐3 nm spheres have been successfully synthesized through a fac-
ile oil‐water interfacial strategy. The morphology and composition of the films
were determined by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy
(XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy
(SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X‐ray (EDAX) and elemental mapping. In
the present study, we have developed a method to minimize the usage of pre-
cious Pd element. Due to the special structure and intermetallic synergies, the
PdNiZn and PdNiZn/RGO nanoalloys exhibited enhanced catalytic activity
and durability relative to Pd nanoparticles in Suzuki‐Miyaura C‐C cross‐cou-
pling reaction. Compared to classical cross‐coupling reactions, this method
has the advantages of a green solvent, short reaction times, low catalyst loading,
high yields and reusability of the catalysts.
graphene oxide, oil‐water interface, Suzuki‐Miyaura catalyst, thin film, trimetallic alloy nanosheets
1 | INTRODUCTION
Trimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) alloy have attracted
increasing interest due to their special morphology, size
and high surface‐ to‐ volume ratios.
has been dedicated to the synthesis of multimetal alloys
due to their various advantages.
A higher degree of
selectivity, higher activity and chemical/physical stability
are some of the advantages of trimetallic nanoalloys com-
pare to their monometallic or even bimetallic counter-
Ultrathin noble metal nanocrystals have a
potential to exhibit novel properties, especially in the area
of catalysis which is related to their high specific surface
Tremendous efforts have been dedicated to the
synthesis of ultrathin nanostructures of noble metals
which is limited in comparison with nanostructures of
metal hydroxides or sulfides.
The importance of
trimetallic alloys as a catalyst in one hand and the impor-
tance of ultrathin nanostructures on the other hand,
encouraged our group to investigate new strategies for
the synthesis of ultrathin trimetallic alloy structures like
nanosheets or nanospheres. Nanosheets have attracted
intensive interest due to their wide range of applica-
To obtain these structures, generally specific con-
ditions should be applied such as using stabilizers or
capping agents to control the growth process.
Tang et al. have synthesized ultrathin Pd nanosheets by
Till now, there are limited reports
on the one‐step synthesis of ultrathin trimetallic nano-
sheets or NPs in the absence of stabilizers. Kang et al.
have synthesized Au@PdPt NPs with high catalytic activ-
ity in the presence of ascorbic acid and hydrazine.
et al. have synthesized Au nanostructures on pre‐formed
PtNi nanostructures in two steps.
nanocrystals, Pd‐based nanocatalysts have attracted atten-
tion because of their physical and chemical performances
compare to pure Pd or its bimetallic nanoalloys.
dium components are the best choice catalysts for various
Received: 18 August 2017 Revised: 17 October 2017 Accepted: 18 October 2017
Appl Organometal Chem. 2018;32:e4187.
Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/aoc 1of11