Extracellular vesicles are nanometer‐sized lipid membranous vesicles that are released from almost all types of cells into the extracellular space. Extracellular vesicles have gained considerable attention in the past decade, and emerging evidence suggests that they play novel roles in mediating cancer biology. Extracellular vesicles contain pathogenic components, such as proteins, DNA fragments, messenger ribonucleic acids, non‐coding ribonucleic acids and lipids, all of which mediate paracrine signaling in the tumor microenvironment. Extracellular vesicles impact the multistep process of cancer progression through modulation of the immune system, angiogenesis and pre‐metastatic niche formation through transfer of their contents. Therefore, a better understanding of their roles in urological cancers will provide opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies. In addition, the contents of extracellular vesicles hold promise for the discovery of liquid‐based biomarkers for prostate, kidney and bladder cancers. Here, we summarize the current research regarding extracellular vesicles in urological cancer and discuss potential clinical applications for extracellular vesicles in urological cancer.
International Journal of Urology – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ;
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