M. I. M. NOBLE Academic Unit of Cardiovascular Medicine, Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, 17 Horseferry Road, London SW1P 2AR (MANUSCRIPT RECEIVED 30 SEPTEMBER 1991, ACCEPTED 6 JANUARY 1992) CONTENTS PAGE Introduction The experimental data Force enhancement during and after stretch Component 1: velocity-dependent force enhancement during stretch Component 2: a force component recruited by a critical sarcomere extension (not increased by further extension), which decays with time Component 3: residual force enhancement after stretch of contracting muscle Structural explanations of force enhancement by active stretch: connectin and nebulin X-ray diffraction studies Energetic considerations: heat production and ATP consumption Simulation of force enhancement by active stretch by muscle models Conclusion References INTRODUCTION Most physiologists and medical students know that when a striated muscle is stimulated, if that muscle has been stretched at rest beyond the optimum length for overlap of actin and myosin filaments, there is a reduction in force production (Ramsey & Street, 1940; Edman, 1966; Gordon, Huxley & Julian, 1966). Fewer know that stretch of striated muscle whilst contracting beyond the optimum length for overlap of actin and myosin filaments increases force production which then remains at a higher level (Fenn, 1924; Abbot, Aubert &
Experimental Physiology – Wiley
Published: Jul 1, 1992
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