Ã Blackwell Publishers Ltd 2002. Published by Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA. 30 European Journal of Education combining participation in global, national, regional and local markets. Unlike commercial organisations, they were also endeavouring to sustain academic values and forms of knowledge. All these changes made new demands at the institutional level. Institutions had both to mediate new government policies and to generate and manage a new kind of institutional autonomy. In contrast with the reduction in state regulation in continental Europe, British universities saw an increase in direct state intervention. The drive for increased public accountability and public funding policies geared towards linking resource allocation with performance generated convergence. However, in common with their counterparts elsewhere, they were at the same time driven towards divergence. They were under pressure to define more clearly the individual identities, goals or `missions' within which they would at minimum survive and at best innovate and expand in a more competitive environment. In the face of these demands, they were pulled from without and, to some extent, pushed from within towards the adoption of managerial frameworks for action. Under pressure
European Journal of Education – Wiley
Published: Mar 1, 2002
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