Samuel Sam-Sumana – Coalition for
Change (C4C): Until March 2015 he was
vice-president of the country and also a
member of the APC. The party sacked
him before the president also ﬁred him
over claims that he had abandoned post.
The ECOWAS court in Abuja later ruled
the sacking as unconstitutional and
ordered government to pay him damages.
Kandeh Yumkella – National Grand
Coalition (NGC): Yumkellah, 58, was
formerly Director-General of the UN
Industrial Development Organisation
(UNIDO). He was Minister of Trade
and Industry from 1994-95. He now
leads the NGC, which is a breakaway
party from the SLPP.
Musa Tarawally – Citizens’ Democratic
Party (CDP): Tarawally, 51, has served
in both the APC and the SLPP in
He is a one-time youth leader of the SLPP
and served as minister under the APC
government. He held positions of Minis-
ter of Internal Affairs and Minister of
Lands, but was sacked from this post in
2015 over shady deals under his tenure.
The other ten 10 presidential candidates
Mohamed Bah, National Democratic Alli-
Patrick John O’Dwyer, National Progressive
Jonathan Patrick Sandy, National Unity and
Reconciliation Party (NURP)
Conteh Kandeh Baba, Peace and Liberation
Margai Charles Francis, Peoples Movement
for Democratic Change (PMDC)
Williams Bresford Victor, Republic National
Independence Party (ReiNIP)
Ngobeh Gbandi Jemba, Revolutionary Uni-
ted Front Party (RUFP)
Sowa Turay Mohamed, United Democratic
Kabuta Henry Saa, United National Peoples
Claudius-Cole Josephine Olufemi, Unity
Emerging presidential candidates p. 21716C
Banned marches against Kabila’s pro-
longed rule go ahead in major cities.
One person was killed and over 20
were injured on February 25th as
police ﬁred live bullets and tear gas
to disperse banned protests calling on
DR Congo President Joseph Kabila to
The church-backed protests came after
months of tension sparked by Kabila’s
prolonged rule and a long-delayed elec-
tion in the vast and chronically unstable
In the capital Kinshasa, one man was
killed as police opened ﬁre on demon-
strators, according to a senior doctor at
the city’s St Joseph de Limete hospital.
“Since 7:00 am we have received three
injured people from the Catholic march.
Two were seriously injured and one died
from a bullet wound in the chest,”
Francois Kajingulu said.
The Catholic church conﬁrmed the
death, with spokesman Donatien Nshole
saying: “We have registered a death in
Kinshasa ... as well as several injured.”
Police however denied anyone had been
killed at all on protest day, claiming that
there had been “zero casualties”.
There were fears the victim’s body could
be “disappeared” by the security forces,
as has been the case in similar instances
in DR Congo, with the authorities eager
to contain the anger on the streets.
According to a preliminary toll compiled
by state television, 22 protesters across
the country were injured, including 13
Another eight were arrested, it added.
An AFP journalist in the northeastern
city of Kisangani said at least two people
suffered bullet injuries as police ﬁred on
Hundreds began marching after mass at
Kisangani cathedral but were dispersed
by security forces who ﬁred bullets and
The demonstrators ﬂed back into the
cathedral singing the national anthem,
“Debout Congolais” (Rise Up Con-
Three priests were arrested as they led a
march in the Saint Pierre de Wagenia
district in the east of the city. Ofﬁcers
took them away in a police vehicle, the
Police used tear gas to crush protests
elsewhere in the sprawling nation,
including in Kikwit in the southwest,
and Goma and Bukavu in the east.
In DR Congo’s second city Lubum-
bashi, youths set vehicle tyres on ﬁre
and were then dispersed by riot police.
The nationwide protests were called by
the Lay Coordination Committee
(CLC), an organisation close to the
church and an inﬂuential social and
spiritual movement. But authorities
banned the demonstrations.
Kabila was due to stand down from
ofﬁce in December 2016, ending his
second elected term, but he has contro-
versially stayed on under laws enabling
him to retain power until his successor is
In January he accused the church of
interfering in Congolese politics.
Previous protests in January saw a total
of 15 people killed by security forces,
according to tolls given by organisers
and the United Nations (UN). The
government said just two people died.
Internet access was re-established in the
evening of February 25th after being cut
for 10 hours across the country, with
SMS and WhatsApp messaging services
disabled as people took to the streets.
Kinshasa police chief General Sylvano
Kasongo said on February 24th he was
under orders to “take measures to ensure
the security of the population, and to
stop anyone who attempts to disturb
On February 25th, police spokesman
colonel Pierrot-Rombaut Mwanamputu
said “the goal to have zero casualties has
Hundreds of ruling party supporters had
stormed Kinshasa cathedral on Febru-
ary 24th, while police put up barricades,
searched vehicles and checked people’s
On February 23rd, the European Union
(EU), Switzerland and Canada issued a
joint statement underscoring the “im-
portance of respecting fundamental
rights including the right to demon-
(© AFP 25/2 2018)
Meanwhile, after six months’ detention
in Kasapa central prison [south-eastern
DR Congo], Timothee Mbuya is now
free. Mr Mbuya is a human rights
advocate who was initially condemned
to three years in prison for having
organised a demonstration in July
2017. He had called on National Inde-
pendent Electoral Commission (CENI)
to publish an electoral calendar.
Okapi 14/2) Continuing deadly protests
A prominent critic is charged with
Egypt’s prosecutor on February 15th
remanded a leading government critic
Abdel Moneim Abul Fotouh in custody
for 15 days over alleged links to exiled
members of the outlawed Muslim
Brotherhood, ofﬁcials said.
His arrest on February 14th came after
he joined a call for a boycott of the
March presidential election that the
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
February 1st–28th 2018 Africa Research Bulletin – 21753