INTRODUCTIONContrast‐induced nephropathy (CIN), also known as contrast‐induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI), is a frequent complication after intravascular contrast media administration. It is defined as an increase in baseline serum creatinine (SCr) level by ≥ 25% or an absolute increase ≥ 44.2 umol/L within 48 or 72 hr after contrast media administration . The advanced development in the field of interventional cardiology resulted in an increasing number of CIN patients and CIN has become the third leading cause of hospital‐acquired acute kidney injury followed by surgical operation and nephrotoxic drug damage, accounting for 11% . However, the present guideline merely recommends the intravenous hydration, use of iso‐ or low‐osmolar contrast media, minimization of contrast volume to prevent the occurrence of CIN and none of other strategies were proved effective in preventing CIN . Therefore, effective strategies need to be explored to prevent the occurrence of CIN.Although the pathophysiological mechanisms of CIN are complex and uncertain, it may be associated with intense vasoconstriction mediated by endothelin, inhibition of nitric oxide‐mediated vasodilation, release of reactive oxygen species and direct toxic effects on tubular cells from contrast media, thus leading to ischemic injury of medulla outer area and the occurrence of CIN . In addition, the inadequate
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ;
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