Effects of Introduced Bullfrogs and Smallmouth Bass on Microhabitat Use, Growth, and Survival of Native Red‐Legged Frogs ( Rana aurora )

Effects of Introduced Bullfrogs and Smallmouth Bass on Microhabitat Use, Growth, and Survival of... We examined the direct and indirect effects of two introduced species, the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), on the microhabitat use, growth, development, and survival of larval and metamorphic red‐legged frogs (Rana aurora). In field enclosure experiments, tadpoles of R. aurora altered their microhabitat use in the presence of both species. The shift in microhabitat use by R. aurora corresponded to increased activity in adult R. catesbeiana. Time to metamorphosis increased and mass at metamorphosis decreased when R. aurora tadpoles were exposed to either larval or adult R. catesbeiana. In contrast, smallmouth bass alone had little effect on the growth and development of R. aurora. In all experiments, survivorship of R. aurora was significantly affected only when R. aurora were exposed to the combined effects of bullfrog larvae and adults or bullfrog larvae and smallmouth bass. Thus, the interaction between stages (larval‐adult) or species (bullfrog–smallmouth bass) produced indirect effects that were greater than when each factor was considered separately. Efectos de la Introducción de la Rana toro Rana catesbeiana y el Pez Micropterus dolomieui en el Uso del Microhabitat, Crecimiento y Supervivencia de la Rana patiroja Rana aurora Examinamos los efectos directos e indirectos de dos especies introducidas; la rana toro Rana catesbeiana y el pez Micropterus dolomieui en el uso del microhabitat, crecimiento, desarrollo y supervivencia de la Rana patiroja Rana aurora en estados larvales y metamórficos. En encierros experimentales de campo, los renacuajos de R. aurora alteraron el uso de su microhábitat en presencia de ambas especies. El cambio en uso de microhábitat por R. aurora correspondió con un incremento en la actividad de adultos de R. catesbeiana. El tiempo de metamorfósis incrementó y la masa durante metamorfósis disminuyó cuando los renacuajos de R. aurora fueron expuestos tanto a larvas como adultos de R. catesbeiana. En contraste, la presencia de solo Micropterus dolomieui tuvo poco efecto en el crecimiento y desarrollo de R. aurora. En todos los experimentos la supervivencia de R. aurora fue significativamente afectada solo cuando R. aurora estuvo expuesta a los efectos combinados de larvas y adultos de la rana toro y el pez. Por lo tanto, la interacción entre estados (larval/adulto) o especies (rana toro/Micropterus) produjo efectos indirectos que fueron mayores que cuando cada factor se consideró por separado. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Conservation Biology Wiley

Effects of Introduced Bullfrogs and Smallmouth Bass on Microhabitat Use, Growth, and Survival of Native Red‐Legged Frogs ( Rana aurora )

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Society for Conservation Biology
ISSN
0888-8892
eISSN
1523-1739
D.O.I.
10.1111/j.1523-1739.1998.97125.x
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

We examined the direct and indirect effects of two introduced species, the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), on the microhabitat use, growth, development, and survival of larval and metamorphic red‐legged frogs (Rana aurora). In field enclosure experiments, tadpoles of R. aurora altered their microhabitat use in the presence of both species. The shift in microhabitat use by R. aurora corresponded to increased activity in adult R. catesbeiana. Time to metamorphosis increased and mass at metamorphosis decreased when R. aurora tadpoles were exposed to either larval or adult R. catesbeiana. In contrast, smallmouth bass alone had little effect on the growth and development of R. aurora. In all experiments, survivorship of R. aurora was significantly affected only when R. aurora were exposed to the combined effects of bullfrog larvae and adults or bullfrog larvae and smallmouth bass. Thus, the interaction between stages (larval‐adult) or species (bullfrog–smallmouth bass) produced indirect effects that were greater than when each factor was considered separately. Efectos de la Introducción de la Rana toro Rana catesbeiana y el Pez Micropterus dolomieui en el Uso del Microhabitat, Crecimiento y Supervivencia de la Rana patiroja Rana aurora Examinamos los efectos directos e indirectos de dos especies introducidas; la rana toro Rana catesbeiana y el pez Micropterus dolomieui en el uso del microhabitat, crecimiento, desarrollo y supervivencia de la Rana patiroja Rana aurora en estados larvales y metamórficos. En encierros experimentales de campo, los renacuajos de R. aurora alteraron el uso de su microhábitat en presencia de ambas especies. El cambio en uso de microhábitat por R. aurora correspondió con un incremento en la actividad de adultos de R. catesbeiana. El tiempo de metamorfósis incrementó y la masa durante metamorfósis disminuyó cuando los renacuajos de R. aurora fueron expuestos tanto a larvas como adultos de R. catesbeiana. En contraste, la presencia de solo Micropterus dolomieui tuvo poco efecto en el crecimiento y desarrollo de R. aurora. En todos los experimentos la supervivencia de R. aurora fue significativamente afectada solo cuando R. aurora estuvo expuesta a los efectos combinados de larvas y adultos de la rana toro y el pez. Por lo tanto, la interacción entre estados (larval/adulto) o especies (rana toro/Micropterus) produjo efectos indirectos que fueron mayores que cuando cada factor se consideró por separado.

Journal

Conservation BiologyWiley

Published: Aug 24, 1998

References

  • Amphibian declines: judging stability, persistence, and susceptibility of populations to local and global extinctions
    Blaustein, Blaustein; Wake, Wake; Sousa, Sousa
  • Isolation of remaining populations of the native frog, Rana muscosa , by introduced fishes in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California
    Bradford, Bradford; Tabatabai, Tabatabai; Graber, Graber
  • Effect of introduced crayfish and mosquitofish on California newts
    Gamradt, Gamradt; Kats, Kats
  • Influences of egg laying behavior on pathogenic infection of amphibian eggs
    Kiesecker, Kiesecker; Blaustein, Blaustein
  • Population differences in responses of red‐legged frogs ( Rana aurora ) to introduced bullfrogs
    Kiesecker, Kiesecker; Blaustein, Blaustein
  • Bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana ) invasion of a California river: the role of larval competition
    Kupferberg, Kupferberg
  • Suspension feeding dynamics of anuran larvae related to their functional morphology
    Seale, Seale; Wassersug, Wassersug
  • Age, experience, and the response of streamside salamander hatchlings to chemical cues from predatory sunfish
    Sih, Sih; Kats, Kats
  • The ontogenetic niche and species interactions in size‐structured populations
    Werner, Werner; Gilliam, Gilliam

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