Effect of nanodiamond additives on the structure and gas-transport
properties of a poly(phenylene–isophtalamide) matrix
Galina Polotskaya ,
Alexander Toikka ,
Alexandra Pulyalina ,
Institute of Chemistry, Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetsky Prospect 26, Saint Petersburg 198504, Russia
Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Bolshoy Prospekt 31, Saint Petersburg 199004, Russia
Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Square 2, Prague 162 06,
Correspondence to: A. Pulyalina (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Nanodiamonds (NDs) are specific carbon nanoparticles approximately 5 nm in diameter with a large and accessible sur-
face containing functional groups. Poly(phenylene–isophtalamide) (PA)–ND composites were prepared by solid-phase dispersal and
used for dense film formation. The PA–ND composites were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The membrane
structure was determined on the basis of density measurement and morphological study by atomic force microscopy. The gas-
transport properties were measured over a wide range of temperatures from 30 to 100 8C for the following series of penetrants: H
, and CO
. The experimental data of gas permeability were compared with the permeability values calculated from Maxwell’s
model. Data on the permeability and diffusion coefficients were used to calculate the activation energies.
2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J.
Appl. Polym. Sci. 2018, 135, 46320.
composites; membranes; nanocrystals; nanoparticles; nanowires; separation techniques
Received 30 September 2017; accepted 1 February 2018
Membrane-separation processes are wide used in industrial pro-
cesses. In recent years, nanocomposite membranes have been
extensively used in the membrane gas-separation process
because of their good mechanical, chemical, and thermal stabili-
ties. Nanocomposites membranes, which have been prepared
through the incorporation of inorganic materials as the dis-
persed phase into the polymeric matrix as the continuous
phase, demonstrate the advantages of both inorganic and poly-
meric materials. Moreover, the particle size of the filler is one of
the important elements that affects the gas-separation properties
of the membranes.
Inorganic particles added to a polymer matrix influence the per-
through the following effects: (1) they act as molecu-
lar sieves and alter the permeability,
(2) they disrupt the
polymeric structure and increase the permeability,
and (3) they
act as barriers reduce the permeability.
Generally, the most popular dispersed inorganic particles in
polymer matrixes are TiO
carbon molecular sieves,
Nanoparticles based on carbon, including carbon
fullerene, graphene, and their derivatives, should
especially be highlighted. Recently, significant attention has been
paid to an alternative type of carbon allotropic nanoparticles,
so-called nanodiamonds (NDs).
NDs are specific carbon nanoparticles about 5 nm in diameter
with large and accessible surfaces containing functional groups.
The relatively inexpensive large-scale production of NDs by a
detonation synthesis process has made them commercially via-
ble for a broad range of applications.
NDs have tetrahedral
network structures, a small size (5–10 nm), a large grain bound-
ary and density, and a low and negative electron affinity.
optical transparency and wide band gap make it possible to use
NDs as semiconductor materials in a wide range of electronic
Membranes based on poly(vinylidene fluoride)
modified by NDs have been applied to water desalination by
ND particles have been selected as an inorganic
modifier of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) membranes
for gas separation.
Aromatic polyamides have been widely applied to the
manufacturing of fibers and membranes. Poly(phenylene–iso-
phtalamide) (PA), as used in this study, is a well-known
2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
J. APPL. POLYM. SCI. 2018, DOI: 10.1002/APP.46320
46320 (1 of 8)