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Editorial Comment to Epidemiology of prostate cancer in Asian countries
Prostate cancer became the most prevalent male cancer in
2016, and still, the number continues to increase in Japan.
contrast, in the USA, the number of prostate cancer patients
has continued to decrease since 1992. The exposure rate of
prostate-speciﬁc antigen (PSA) screening might be responsible
for the difference in trends between the two countries.
The clinical beneﬁt of PSA screening has been described
in previous studies. In the European Randomized Study of
Screening for Prostate Cancer study, prostate cancer mortality
was reduced by 21% in favor of the screening arm. In con-
trast, a recent publication by the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal
and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial data showed a 90% PSA
contamination rate in the control arm, which seriously ques-
tions the value of the reported outcomes.
Even among Asian countries, there were signiﬁcant differ-
ences in the trends of prostate cancer death. In countries such
© 2018 The Japanese Urological Association
Epidemiology of prostate cancer