Extracellular matrix degradation during dermal wound healing involves multiple levels of regulation by several enzymes of the matrix metalloproteinase family, their activators, and their inhibitors. This study tested the hypothesis that a temporal pattern of interstitial collagenase appearance occurs during normal dermal wound healing, with matrix metalloproteinase‐8 originating from neutrophils appearing earlier than the fibroblast‐derived matrix metalloproteinase‐1. Open (6 mm) full‐thickness dermal wounds, which were covered by transparent occlusive dressings, were made in healthy human volunteers (n = 20). Wound fluids from under the dressings were collected daily through day 8, and wound tissue biopsies were obtained on days 0, 2, 4, 14, and 28. Collagenases were extracted from homogenized tissue biopsies for analysis. Samples were analyzed for the presence of matrix metalloproteinase‐1 and matrix metalloproteinase‐8 by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assays and by collagenase activity assays using purified types I and III collagen as substrates. In addition, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases‐1 and matrix metalloproteinase‐1/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases‐1 complexes in wound fluids were measured. Results showed a differential temporal pattern of matrix metalloproteinase‐1 and matrix metalloproteinase‐8 in wound exudates with peak levels of matrix metalloproteinase‐8 occurring on day 4 and matrix metalloproteinase‐1 peak levels on day 7. Maximal levels in tissue for both enzymes occurred on day 2. At all time points examined, levels of matrix metalloproteinase‐8 were statistically higher than matrix metalloproteinase‐1 (100‐fold to 200‐fold). Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases‐1 levels declined over time, whereas levels of matrix metalloproteinase‐1/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase‐1 complexes increased to a plateau on day 7. This study provides new evidence implicating matrix metalloproteinase‐8 as a major collagenase in healing human dermal wounds. It also shows a temporal pattern in the appearance of the matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase‐1, and matrix metalloproteinase‐1/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases‐1 complexes, suggesting that a tightly regulated pattern of expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors is essential for normal wound healing in humans.
Wound Repair and Regeneration – Wiley
Published: Mar 1, 1998
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