Does Richness cause speciation? After MacArthur and Wilson (1967) , island biogeographical research focused primarily on processes of colonization and extinction over ecological time scales, but recent work has rejuvenated interest in the generation of diversity in situ over evolutionary time ( Lomolino 2000 , Losos and Schluter 2000 , Gillespie 2004 , Cadena et al. 2005 ). In a recent contribution, Emerson and Kolm (2005) proposed a causal link between species richness and speciation on islands. They suggested that species richness per se might increase the rate of speciation by intensifying competition and suppressing population densities of resident species, thereby allowing for increased genetic drift, greater lability in traits, and increased evolutionary change ( Erwin 2005 ). Alternatively, increased structural complexity and heterogeneity associated with higher richness may stimulate niche diversification and speciation ( Tokeshi 1999 ). Emerson and Kolm (2005) supported their proposition with stepwise multiple regression analyses of island species richness for plants and arthropods in the Canary and Hawaiian archipelagos. For these analyses they proposed that the proportion of an island's biota that consisted of single‐island endemics‐hereafter “SIEs”– could be interpreted as an index of speciation. Their arcsine‐transformed index was positively correlated with total
Ecography – Wiley
Published: Apr 1, 2008
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