Dispersion of exhaled droplet nuclei in a two‐bed hospital ward with three different ventilation systems

Dispersion of exhaled droplet nuclei in a two‐bed hospital ward with three different... Abstract Effective ventilation in general hospital wards is important for controlling the airborne transmission of infectious respiratory diseases. Experiments have been carried out to increase our understanding of the interaction of the breathing flows of two individuals in a full‐scale experimental hospital ward with three ventilation systems, i.e. mixing, downward and displacement ventilation. Two life‐size breathing thermal manikins were used to simulate a source patient and a receiving patient. The exhalation jet from a bed‐lying manikin was visualized using smoke. N2O was used as tracer gas to simulate the droplet nuclei exhaled by patients; and the spatial distribution of its concentrations was measured. Our experimental results show that for both mixing and downward ventilation, the exhaled jet penetrates a short distance and is diluted quickly by ventilation air. The exhaled droplet nuclei are well mixed in the ward. Bed distance does not affect the personal exposure of the receiving patient. For displacement ventilation, the exhaled jet can penetrate a long distance. A high concentration layer of exhaled droplet nuclei because of thermal stratification locking has also been observed with displacement ventilation. This work is useful for identifying an appropriate ventilation method that can remove droplet nuclei more effectively and minimize the risk of cross‐infections in a hospital ward environment. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Indoor Air Wiley

Dispersion of exhaled droplet nuclei in a two‐bed hospital ward with three different ventilation systems

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 2006 Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
ISSN
0905-6947
eISSN
1600-0668
D.O.I.
10.1111/j.1600-0668.2005.00407.x
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Effective ventilation in general hospital wards is important for controlling the airborne transmission of infectious respiratory diseases. Experiments have been carried out to increase our understanding of the interaction of the breathing flows of two individuals in a full‐scale experimental hospital ward with three ventilation systems, i.e. mixing, downward and displacement ventilation. Two life‐size breathing thermal manikins were used to simulate a source patient and a receiving patient. The exhalation jet from a bed‐lying manikin was visualized using smoke. N2O was used as tracer gas to simulate the droplet nuclei exhaled by patients; and the spatial distribution of its concentrations was measured. Our experimental results show that for both mixing and downward ventilation, the exhaled jet penetrates a short distance and is diluted quickly by ventilation air. The exhaled droplet nuclei are well mixed in the ward. Bed distance does not affect the personal exposure of the receiving patient. For displacement ventilation, the exhaled jet can penetrate a long distance. A high concentration layer of exhaled droplet nuclei because of thermal stratification locking has also been observed with displacement ventilation. This work is useful for identifying an appropriate ventilation method that can remove droplet nuclei more effectively and minimize the risk of cross‐infections in a hospital ward environment.

Journal

Indoor AirWiley

Published: Apr 1, 2006

References

  • Dispersal of exhaled air and personal exposure in displacement ventilated rooms
    Bjørn, Bjørn; Nielsen, Nielsen
  • Convective exchange between the nose and the atmosphere
    Haselton, Haselton; Sperandio, Sperandio
  • Vertical temperature profiles in rooms ventilated by displacement: full‐scale measurement and nodal modelling
    Li, Li; Sandberg, Sandberg; Fuchs, Fuchs
  • Role of air distribution in SARS transmission during largest nosocomial outbreak in Hong Kong
    Li, Li; Huang, Huang; Yu, Yu; Wong, Wong; Qian, Qian
  • Risk of indoor airborne infection transmission estimated from carbon dioxide concentration
    Rudnick, Rudnick; Milton, Milton

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