Flume experiments were conducted using four different gravel beds (D50 + 12–39 mm) and a range of marked particles (10–65 mm). The shear stresses were evaluated from friction velocities, when initial movement of marked particles occurred. Two kinds of equations were produced: first for the threshold of initial movement, and second for generalized movement. Equations of the type 0c + a(Di/D50)b, as proposed by Andrews (1983) are applicable even if the material is relatively well sorted. However, the values of a and b are lower (respectively 0·050 and ‐0·70) for initial movement. Generalized movement requires a higher shear stress (a + 0·068 and b + ‐0·80). D90 of the bed material and y0 (the bed roughness parameter) were also used as reference values in place of D50. They produced lower values than in natural streams, mainly owing to the fact that the material used in the flume is better sorted: clusters are less well developed and the bed roughness is lower.
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms – Wiley
Published: Sep 1, 1994
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