Food Sci Nutr. 2018;6:440–449.
Received: 17 October 2017
Revised: 24 November 2017
Accepted: 28 November 2017
Development of omega- 3- rich Camelina sativa seed oil
Henok D. Belayneh | Randy L. Wehling | Yue Zhang | Ozan N. Ciftci
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited.
© 2017 The Authors. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Department of Food Science and
Technology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln,
Lincoln, NE, USA
Ozan N. Ciftci, Department of Food Science
and Technology, University of Nebraska-
Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA.
Camelina sativa seed is an underutilized oil source rich in omega- 3 fatty acids; how-
ever, camelina oil is not fully explored for food applications. Its high omega- 3 content
makes it susceptible to oxidation, which may limit food applications. Therefore, the
main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of camelina seed oil to
form physically and oxidatively stable emulsions as a potential delivery system for
omega- 3 fatty acids. Effects of homogenization conditions, namely, pressure (15 MPa-
30 MPa), number of passes (1,3,5, and 7), and type of homogenizers (high pressure and
high shear) on the structural properties and stability of camelina seed oil emulsions
stabilized with whey protein isolate were studied. High homogenization pressure
(30 MPa) and number of passes (>3) reduced the particle size (278 nm) and formed
more physically and oxidatively stable emulsions compared to high shear homogeniza-
tion; high shear homogenization generated bigger oil particles (~2,517 nm). Apparent
viscosity and consistency index (k) decreased with increasing pressure, number of
passes, and shear rate. Emulsions prepared with high pressure homogenization at both
15 and 30 MPa with 3 and more passes did not exhibit any peroxide formation over
28 days. Results indicated that camelina seed oil is a promising alternative oil source to
form stable omega- 3- rich emulsions for food applications.
camelina seed oil, emulsion, homogenization, oxidation, stability
1 | INTRODUCTION
Camelina seed (Camelian sativa L. crantz) is a little- known oil seed
which belongs to the Brassicaceae family (Mansour et al., 2014; Shukla,
Dutta, & Artz, 2002). Even though the demand for camelina seed in
the United States has been for biodiesel production because of its high
oil (28%–40%) (Budin, Breene, & Putnam, 1995; Li, Qi, Sun, & Wang,
2016; Lu, Napier, Clemente, & Cahoon, 2011; Nguyen et al., 2013), its
high omega- 3 and minor lipid components such as tocopherols and
phytosterols make it suitable for food applications. Camelina seed
oil has very recently received a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS)
status by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States
(GRN642, 2016). Camelina seed oil contains 33%–40% of α- linolenic
acid (C18:3 ω3, ALA), an essential omega- 3 fatty acid (Belayneh,
Wehling, Cahoon, & Ciftci, 2015) known for health benefits such as
promoting eye health and development of brain and nervous system
in infants, reducing risk of hypertension, and some types of cancer
(Chiu, Klein, Milton, Gensler, & Taylor, 2009; Gogus and Smith 2010).
In addition, camelina seed oil is rich in tocopherols (760 mg/kg oil) and
phytosterols (up to 6,500 mg/kg oil) which are natural antioxidants
and health promoting minor lipid compounds (Schwartz, Ollilainen,
Piironen, & Lampi, 2008; Belayneh et al., 2015).