Demographic Side Effects of Selective Hunting in Ungulates and Carnivores

Demographic Side Effects of Selective Hunting in Ungulates and Carnivores Abstract: Selective harvesting regimes are often implemented because age and sex classes contribute differently to population dynamics and hunters show preferences associated with body size and trophy value. We reviewed the literature on how such cropping regimes affect the demography of the remaining population (here termed demographic side effects ). First, we examined the implications of removing a large proportion of a specific age or sex class. Such harvesting strategies often bias the population sex ratio toward females and reduce the mean age of males, which may consequently delay birth dates, reduce birth synchrony, delay body mass development, and alter offspring sex ratios. Second, we reviewed the side effects associated with the selective removal of relatively few specific individuals, often large trophy males. Such selective harvesting can destabilize social structures and the dominance hierarchy and may cause loss of social knowledge, sexually selected infanticide, habitat changes among reproductive females, and changes in offspring sex ratio. A common feature of many of the reported mechanisms is that they ultimately depress recruitment and in some extreme cases even cause total reproductive collapse. These effects could act additively and destabilize the dynamics of populations, thus having a stronger effect on population growth rate than first anticipated. Although more experimental than observational studies reported demographic side effects, we argue that this may reflect the quite subtle mechanisms involved, which are unlikely to be detected in observational studies without rigorous monitoring regimes. We call for more detailed studies of hunted populations with marked individuals that address how the expression of these effects varies across mating systems, habitats, and with population density. Theoretical models investigating how strongly these effects influence population growth rates are also required. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Conservation Biology Wiley

Demographic Side Effects of Selective Hunting in Ungulates and Carnivores

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 2007 Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
ISSN
0888-8892
eISSN
1523-1739
D.O.I.
10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00591.x
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract: Selective harvesting regimes are often implemented because age and sex classes contribute differently to population dynamics and hunters show preferences associated with body size and trophy value. We reviewed the literature on how such cropping regimes affect the demography of the remaining population (here termed demographic side effects ). First, we examined the implications of removing a large proportion of a specific age or sex class. Such harvesting strategies often bias the population sex ratio toward females and reduce the mean age of males, which may consequently delay birth dates, reduce birth synchrony, delay body mass development, and alter offspring sex ratios. Second, we reviewed the side effects associated with the selective removal of relatively few specific individuals, often large trophy males. Such selective harvesting can destabilize social structures and the dominance hierarchy and may cause loss of social knowledge, sexually selected infanticide, habitat changes among reproductive females, and changes in offspring sex ratio. A common feature of many of the reported mechanisms is that they ultimately depress recruitment and in some extreme cases even cause total reproductive collapse. These effects could act additively and destabilize the dynamics of populations, thus having a stronger effect on population growth rate than first anticipated. Although more experimental than observational studies reported demographic side effects, we argue that this may reflect the quite subtle mechanisms involved, which are unlikely to be detected in observational studies without rigorous monitoring regimes. We call for more detailed studies of hunted populations with marked individuals that address how the expression of these effects varies across mating systems, habitats, and with population density. Theoretical models investigating how strongly these effects influence population growth rates are also required.

Journal

Conservation BiologyWiley

Published: Feb 1, 2007

References

  • Male turnover reduces population growth: an enclosure experiment on voles
    Andreassen, Andreassen; Gundersen, Gundersen
  • Lion density and population structure in the Selous Game Reserve: evaluation of hunting quotas and offtake
    Creel, Creel; Creel, Creel
  • The management of wild large herbivores to meet economic, conservation and environmental objectives
    Gordon, Gordon; Hester, Hester; Festa‐Bianchet, Festa‐Bianchet
  • Effects of intensive harvesting on moose reproduction
    Laurian, Laurian; Ouellet, Ouellet; Courtois, Courtois; Breton, Breton; St‐Onge, St‐Onge
  • What determines phenology and synchrony of ungulate breeding in Serengeti?
    Sinclair, Sinclair; Mduma, Mduma; Arcese, Arcese
  • Possible negative effects of adult male mortality on female grizzly bear reproduction
    Wielgus, Wielgus; Bunnell, Bunnell
  • Estimating effects of adult male mortality on grizzly bear population growth and persistence using matrix models
    Wielgus, Wielgus; Sarrazin, Sarrazin; Ferriere, Ferriere; Clobert, Clobert

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