Objective To establish the reliability and validity of a 10‐item short form of the CES‐D (CESD‐10). Design Cross‐sectional and longitudinal follow‐up over 3 years. Standardized questionnaire and face‐to‐face interview were conducted. Setting Community and psychogeriatric assessment clinic of a voluntary organization. Participants Five hundred and fifty‐four elderly in the general community, 30 elderly from a community centre and 31 elderly patients with depressive symptoms. Measures Instruments other than the CESD‐10 included Activities of Daily Living (ADL), the Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS), the Lubben Social Network Scale, a single‐item measure of self‐rated health. Results Reliability of the CESD‐10 in terms of internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach α=0.78–0.79). Moderate consistency over a period of 3 years was also found to be significant (r=0.44, p<0.01). The CESD‐10 showed comparable accuracy to the original CES‐D in classifying cases with depressive symptoms (κ=0.84, p<0.01). Significant relationships of the CESD‐10 with impairments of daily functioning, life satisfaction, social support and self‐rated health were established. The CESD‐10 also differentiated significantly between groups of ‘normal’ and clinically depressed elderly. Conclusion The CESD‐10 attained satisfactory content and temporal reliability. Its construct and concurrent validity were established. With its brevity, it should prove a useful mental health measure for the elderly. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry – Wiley
Published: Aug 1, 1999
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