Cross-linked Chitosan/Corn Cob Biocomposite Films with
Salicylaldehyde on Tensile, Thermal, and Biodegradable
Properties: A Comparative Study
MING YENG CHAN
Centre of Engineering Programmes, HELP College of Arts and Technology 6.01 Level 1-7, Kompleks Metro Pudu, 1 Jalan Metro Pudu 2,
Fraser Business Park, 55200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
SEONG CHUN KOAY
School of Engineering, Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus, No. 1, Jalan Taylor’s, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
Division of Polymer Engineering, School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis, Malaysia
SUNG TING SAM
School of Bioprocess Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
Correspondence to: M. Y. Chan; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Received: April 28, 2015
Accepted: October 1, 2016
The focus of this research paper was to study the properties of uncrosslinked and cross-linked chitosan (CS)/corn
cob (CC) biocomposite ﬁlms with salicylaldehyde (SAL). The uncrosslinked and cross-linked CS/CC biocomposite ﬁlms with SAL
were prepared through solvent casting method. The SAL is used as cross-linking agent in biocmposite ﬁlms. The effect of CC con-
tent and SAL on the tensile, thermal, biodegradation properties, and morphological study of CS/CC biocomposite ﬁlms are investi-
gated. The tensile strength and elongation at break of CS/CC cob biocomposite ﬁlms decreases, but modulus of elasticity increases
with increasing CC content. However, the addition of SAL showed 59.47% and 25.18% of improvement in average tensile strength
and modulus of elasticity of cross-linked CS/CC biocomposite ﬁlms, respectively, as compared to uncrosslinked biocomposite
ﬁlms. The cross-linked biocomposite ﬁlms exhibited higher thermal stability than uncrosslinked biocomposite ﬁlms. Moreover, the
cross-linked biocomposite ﬁlms with SAL cross-linking agent showed lower weight loss in enzyme and soil biodegradation as com-
pared to uncrosslinked biocomposite ﬁlms. As a comparison, the cross-linked biocomposite ﬁlms with SAL showed the highest
properties compared to others cross-linking agent such as glutaraldehyde and epichlorohydrin as reported in our previous study.
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Technol 2018, 37, 21784; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI
Biocomposite ﬁlms, Biodegradable, Chitosan, Corn cob, Cross-linking
ecently, most researchers are more interested in the uti-
lization of renewable resources in their research. These
renewable resources including low value plants, energy crops,
and product from food crops, sawmills, palm oil production,
marine waste, and food waste as a new materials to produce
Natural ﬁller known as renewable raw materi-
als and their availability is unlimited. These natural ﬁllers pro-
mote several advantages, including low density, renewability,
biodegradability, recyclability, and cost effectiveness. Corn
(Zea mays) is Poaceae (grass family) which is one of the top
three cereal crops grown in the world.
In year 2013, annual
world corn production is about 964 million tons, which gener-
ated about 204 million tons of corn residues.
Corn cob (CC)
is one of the corn residues that is abundant around the world.
Corn cob is the center core of a corn, which is a part of the
corn kernel grow.
Chitosan (CS) is a partially deacetylated polymer of N-
acetyl glucosamine through alkaline treatment from chitin.
Chitosan is a weakly basic polymer as the primary amine
Advances in Polymer Technology, Vol. 37, No. 4, 2018, DOI 10.1002/adv.21784
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
21784 (1 of 11)