Contribution of human short‐wave cones to luminance and motion detection.

Contribution of human short‐wave cones to luminance and motion detection. 1. Human short‐wave S cone signals are important for colour vision and here we examine whether the S cone signals also contribute to motion and luminance. 2. Detection was measured with moving patterns that selectively stimulated S cones‐violet sine‐wave gratings of 1 cycle deg‐1 on an intense yellowish field. For rates up to 12 Hz, detection was governed by non‐directional mechanisms, possibly of a chromatic nature, as shown by three findings: moving gratings had to be suprathreshold for their direction to be identified; the threshold ratio of counterphase flickering versus moving gratings was low; and direction‐selective adaptation was essentially absent. 3. Evidence for less sensitive, directional mechanisms includes the following: at high velocity, the direction of movement of the violet gratings can be identified just slightly above the detection threshold; directional adaptation was strong with a suprathreshold test pattern; velocity was seen veridically for clearly suprathreshold patterns; and a counterphase flickering test, added in spatial‐temporal quadrature phase to a similar suprathreshold mask, had identical detection and direction‐identification thresholds. 4. Interactions of long‐wave L cone and S cone signals in direction‐selective mechanisms were measured with an orange counterphase grating and a violet counterphase test, both flickering at the same rate and presented in spatial quadrature phase on the yellowish adapting field. Direction identification thresholds, measured as a function of the temporal phase of two gratings, demonstrated both that the S cone signal lags considerably behind the L cone signal (an effect that strongly varies with S cone light adaptation), and more strikingly, the S cone signal summates with a negative sign and thus is effectively inverted in direction‐selective mechanisms. 5. Quantitatively similar temporal phase functions were obtained with uniform violet and orange flicker when a luminance discrimination criterion was used: thus the S cone signal summates negatively with the L cone signal for both discrimination of luminance flicker and the direction of motion. 6. The temporal phase functions accurately predicted threshold summation for identifying the direction of motion of a pair of violet and orange gratings moving with the same velocity but with different spatial phase offsets. Once the relative temporal phase lag of the S cones was compensated for, there was linear threshold summation for the violet and orange patterns when presented in effective (physiological) spatial antiphase, and clear cancellation when presented in phase. This and related experiments show a linear summation of S, M and L cone signals for direction detection, with the S cones having a negative sign.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The Journal of Physiology Wiley

Contribution of human short‐wave cones to luminance and motion detection.

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 413 (1) – Jun 1, 1989

Loading next page...
 
/lp/wiley/contribution-of-human-short-wave-cones-to-luminance-and-motion-KFqzWpLHTu
Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
© 2014 The Physiological Society
ISSN
0022-3751
eISSN
1469-7793
DOI
10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017669
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

1. Human short‐wave S cone signals are important for colour vision and here we examine whether the S cone signals also contribute to motion and luminance. 2. Detection was measured with moving patterns that selectively stimulated S cones‐violet sine‐wave gratings of 1 cycle deg‐1 on an intense yellowish field. For rates up to 12 Hz, detection was governed by non‐directional mechanisms, possibly of a chromatic nature, as shown by three findings: moving gratings had to be suprathreshold for their direction to be identified; the threshold ratio of counterphase flickering versus moving gratings was low; and direction‐selective adaptation was essentially absent. 3. Evidence for less sensitive, directional mechanisms includes the following: at high velocity, the direction of movement of the violet gratings can be identified just slightly above the detection threshold; directional adaptation was strong with a suprathreshold test pattern; velocity was seen veridically for clearly suprathreshold patterns; and a counterphase flickering test, added in spatial‐temporal quadrature phase to a similar suprathreshold mask, had identical detection and direction‐identification thresholds. 4. Interactions of long‐wave L cone and S cone signals in direction‐selective mechanisms were measured with an orange counterphase grating and a violet counterphase test, both flickering at the same rate and presented in spatial quadrature phase on the yellowish adapting field. Direction identification thresholds, measured as a function of the temporal phase of two gratings, demonstrated both that the S cone signal lags considerably behind the L cone signal (an effect that strongly varies with S cone light adaptation), and more strikingly, the S cone signal summates with a negative sign and thus is effectively inverted in direction‐selective mechanisms. 5. Quantitatively similar temporal phase functions were obtained with uniform violet and orange flicker when a luminance discrimination criterion was used: thus the S cone signal summates negatively with the L cone signal for both discrimination of luminance flicker and the direction of motion. 6. The temporal phase functions accurately predicted threshold summation for identifying the direction of motion of a pair of violet and orange gratings moving with the same velocity but with different spatial phase offsets. Once the relative temporal phase lag of the S cones was compensated for, there was linear threshold summation for the violet and orange patterns when presented in effective (physiological) spatial antiphase, and clear cancellation when presented in phase. This and related experiments show a linear summation of S, M and L cone signals for direction detection, with the S cones having a negative sign.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Journal

The Journal of PhysiologyWiley

Published: Jun 1, 1989

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off